By Jim Phillips, P.E.
**NO LONGER AVAILABLE**
Step by Step Approach – This book takes the entire Arc Flash Study process and breaks it down into individual steps with one chapter for each step.
Solved Examples – This book is Packed with many solved example problems to help illustrate the details of each equation and calculation method.
Calculation Work Sheets – Solving complex equations such as those used for the study can seem overwhelming. However, Jim takes each arc flash equation and breaks it down into simple steps by using work sheets that he developed to simplify the problem solving process.
Tricks and Traps – Many questions and potential problem areas are frequently encountered when performing the Arc Flash Study. Jim provides many tricks that can be used for the study and also warnings about the potential traps that could be encountered. You will also see how to successfully make assumptions and simplify the overall process.
DC Arc Flash Calculations – Although not part of any standard (yet), this is the first book of it’s kind to include DC arc flash calculations and worksheets with many examples and illustrations based on a few well known technical papers.
Chapter 1. Warning! Arc Flash Hazard
What is an Arc Flash?
Chapter 2. Codes and Standards
Who Says I Have to Perform the Study?
OSHA CFR Title 29
NFPA 70E—Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace
Shock Hazard Analysis
Arc Flash Warning Labels
NFPA 70 National Electrical Code
Many Standards Define the Arc Flash Study and Protection Requirements
Chapter 3. What is an Arc-Flash Hazard Calculation Study?
What is an Arc-Flash Hazard Calculation Study?
Why Perform the Arc-Flash Hazard Calculation Study?
The Study Process
Chapter 4. Data Collection
Where Do I begin?
PPE To Wear During Data Collection
Single Line Diagrams
Jump Start the Project
Protective Device Data
Arc Flash Study Parameters
Type of Equipment
Equipment Condition and Maintenance
Chapter 5. Single Line Diagram
Developing the Single Line Diagram
Chapter 6. System Modeling
Comparison of Scenarios—Does the PPE Level Change?
Chapter 7. Bolted Short Circuit Current
What is a Short Circuit?
Short Circuit Study—Bolted Short Circuit Current
Simplified “Infinite Bus” Short Circuit Calculation
Comparison of Transformer kVA Rating and Short Circuit Current
Effect of the Source Impedance
Effect of the Conductors
Short Circuit Motor Contribution
Chapter 8. Arcing Short Circuit Current
Arcing Short Circuit vs. Bolted Short Circuit
Arcing Short Circuit Current Calculations
Arcing Short Circuit Calculations ≤ 1kV
Chapter 9. Arc Flash Duration and Time Current Curves
Duration of Arc Flash Exposure
Factors Affecting Arc Flash Duration
Time Current Curves
Selective Coordination and Maintenance Settings
Transformer Secondary Blind Spot and Danger Areas
Overcurrent Device Age and Condition
Device Setting or Rating Changes
100% vs. 85% of Arcing Current
Chapter 10. Incident Energy Calculations
Incident Energy Calculations ≤ 15 kV Three Phas
Incident Energy Calculations > 15 kV
Current Limiting Devices
Clearing Time is Everything
Chapter 11. Arc Flash Boundary
Arc Flash Boundary
IEEE 1584 Arc Flash Boundary < 15 kV
Arc Flash Boundary > 15 kV
Using Arc Flash Boundary Equations to determine the safe working distance for PPE
with a lower arc rating
Keeping Unprotected People Away
Keep it Simple! Standardized Arc Flash Protection Boundaries
Chapter 12. DC Arc Flash Calculations
Arc Flash is not Just an AC Problem
DC Arc Flash Calculations
DC Arc Flash Modeling
DC Arc Resistance Worksheet
Power and Energy in the Arc
DC Arc Flash in Open Air
DC Arc Flash in an Enclosure / Box
Chapter 13. Arc-Rated Clothing and Personal Protective Equipment
Arc-Rated Clothing and PPE Selection
OSHA AR Clothing and PPE Requirements
NFPA 70E– AR Clothing and PPE Requirements
Method One—Incident Energy Analysis
Hazard/Risk Category Classification Table
Alternative to the Arc-Flash Hazard Calculation Study
NESC Arc-Rated Clothing and PPE Requirements
Incident Energy Greater Than 40 cal/cm2
Personal Protective Equipment
Chapter 14. Arc Flash Warning Labels
Arc Flash Warning Label
What Information is required on the label?
Which Equipment requires a label?
What Colors and Signal Words are required?
Where are the Labels Located?
Labeling Multi-Section Equipment
Chapter 15. Solutions
Recommendations to Reduce Incident Energy
Protective Device Setting Changes to Reduce the Arc Flash Hazard
Protection Schemes to Reduce the Arc Flash Hazard
The Best Method
Chapter 16. The Arc-Flash Hazard Calculation Study Report
Put it in Writing
The Detailed Report
There WILL be Changes!
Get Everyone On Board!
Chapter 17. Integrating the Results into the Electrical Safety Program
Arc Flash and the Electrical Safety Program
How to Recognize the Arc Flash Hazard
Arc Flash Protection Boundary
Selection of Arc-Rated Clothing and PPE based on Study Results
Use of Arc Flash Warning Labels
Electrically Safe Work Condition
Energized Electrical Work Permit
Arc Flash and Electrical Safety Training
Chapter 18. The Final Word—Can it Happen to Me?
I am careful—It can’t happen to me!
Strange Statistics from My Arc Flash Training
The Final Word—Don’t Become a Statistic!
Appendix A: Acronyms
Appendix B: Data Collection Forms
Appendix C: Calculation Worksheets