Coordination Studies

On Demand Class | 6 Hours | 28 Modules | By Jim Phillips, P.E.

  • 6 PDHs | 0.6 CEUs
  • 28 Video Modules
  • Many In Class Problems
  • Final Quiz – Minimum Passing Score of 70% Required for Continuing Education Credit
  • Take the quiz as many times as you need
  • Certificate of Completion with PDH/CEU Credit
  • Program does NOT expire
  • Store this program in your personal library for future reference
  • Packed with in class examples and and problems
  • WATCH the Video Preview on the left above left

Groups of 4 or more receive discounts of  25% off!

Groups of 10 or more receive discounts beginning at 30% off. 

Larger groups? contact us as many other companies have done.

Questions?  Call us at 800-874-8883 (US) or email us at [email protected] for details about group/corporate rates.

About the Class

A coordination study, sometimes known as protective device coordination analysis, protection study and similar terms, is an “attempt” to select and set devices to minimize the extent of an outage when a fault or overload occurs.  Ideally only the device closest to the fault should operate and clear with the other devices remaining closed.  This minimizes the extent of the outage.

Accomplishing selectivity between devices typically requires that each device further upstream and closer to the source be a bit less sensitive and often have some intentional time delay.  This approach is good for selectivity but what about protection?  Setting devices with more time delay can result in unnecessary damage if the fault is to be cleared by a device that has delay.

Selectivity and protection are two competing objectives.  In this class, Jim Phillips takes you step by step though the coordination study process.  In addition, in this unique class based on his four decades of experience, he shows you how to manually construct the graphs which has become a lost art in the age of “there’s an app for that”

You will see how to make decisions regarding compromises in selectivity that are often necessary to achieve the best overall coordination.  You will also learn about ground fault protection, coordinating current limit fuses, electronic trip circuit breakers, setting protective relays as well as how to protect transformers based on the ANSI C57 thru fault curves.  The final case problem illustrates how to address making compromises when perfect coordination is not attainable.  

This class was recorded during the week long “Electrical Power System Engineering Class”

Agenda

COORDINATION STUDY REQUIREMENTS
Selective Coordination Basics, Understanding Time Current Curves (TCC), Data Requirements, Device Settings, Graph Scale Selection, Protection vs. Selectivity and Reliability, Compromises in Coordinating Devices in Series

COORDINATION OF MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKERS
Molded Case Circuit Breaker Time Current Curves, Overload Region of TCC, Instantaneous Region, Fixed vs. Adjustable Instantaneous, Determining the Setting of the Instantaneous, Drawing Time Current Curves.  In Class Problem – Drawing Molded Case Circuit Breaker Time Current Curves, Selecting Settings for Optimal Selective Coordination, Evaluating What Happens During Mis-Coordination

COORDINATION OF FUSES
Time Current Curves of Fuses, Current Limiting vs. Non Current Limiting Fuse Curves, Minimum Melting and Total Clearing Curves, Coordinating Two Sets of Current Limiting Fuses with Selectivity Tables, Coordinating I2T Let-Thru Energy.  In Class Problems – Coordinating Fuses with Each Other and Coordinating Fuses with Circuit Breakers

SOLID STATE / ELECTRONIC TRIP BREAKERS
Long Time, Short Time, Instantaneous Settings, I2T Settings, Coordination of Electronic Trip Circuit Breakers, Eliminating Instantaneous for Coordination, NEC® Requirements for High Speed Fault Clearing for Reducing the Hazard From an Arc Flash

GROUND FAULT RELAYS
Residually Connected Ground Fault Schemes, Zero Sequence Ground Fault Relaying, Settings, NEC® Requirements for Ground Fault Protection of Services, Feeders and Equipment, Nuisance Tripping, Setting Ground Fault Devices

OVERCURRENT RELAYS
Protective Relay Operation, Amp Tap Setting, Time Dial Operation and Setting, Instantaneous Function, Current Transformers, Necessary Protective Relay Time Margins for Selective Coordination, Setting Selection, Protective Relay Time Current Curves, Curve Shape – Inverse, Very Inverse, Extremely Inverse.  In Class Problems – Setting Overcurrent Relays and Drawing Relay Time Current Curves

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
NEC® Article 450 Requirements, Magnetizing Inrush Current, Using ANSI C57 Thru Fault Curves for Transformer Protection, Adjustments to the Thru Fault Curves Based on Transformer Winding Configurations, Setting Overcurrent Relays for Protecting a Transformer Based on ANSI C57

TIME CURRENT CURVES AT TWO DIFFERENT VOLTAGE LEVELS
Evaluate what happens when coordinating a transformer primary and secondary device at two different voltage levels.  See how to adjust the TCCs

CASE PROBLEM
Coordination Study of Small Industrial Plant, Determining Optimal Device Settings and Drawing Time Current Curves for Multiple Devices in Series.

2018 Edition of IEEE 1584 – Overview of Major Changes

The second edition of IEEE 1584 – IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations was Sixteen years in the making. This online class by Jim Phillips, P.E. provides an overview of the major changes including topics such as grounding, electrode configuration, 125 kVA transformer exception, new calculation process and more.

2018 NFPA 70E Major Changes

2018 NFPA 70EThe 2018 Edition is here and once again, change is a constant theme. From both minor and major revisions, to new additions and major reorganizations, the 11th edition contains many changes.

Earn 0.2 CEUs / 2 PDHs with this training program. Upon completing and passing the final quiz, a certificate of completion and course transcript will be available at your “Brain Vault”. 

Many global changes found throughout the 2018 edition include:

All mathematical symbols are replaced with alpha numeric values. i.e. “>” is now spelled out as “greater than”

cal/cm^2 are the primary units and J/cm^2 is in parenthesis.

A greater emphasis is placed on risk assessment.

Job Safety Planning was added as a new Section 110.1(I)

All training requirements are now located in 110.2. This includes relocating Lockout-Tagout training from Article 120.

All Lockout/Tagout auditing requirements were relocated to 110.1(K)(3).

In order to continue improving the standard to be more user friendly, Article 120 has been reorganized for a more logical flow.

Other changes include the deletion of the informational note regarding de-energizing above 40 cal/cm^2

The list of PPE standards has been removed from the mandatory part of the standard are re-located in informational text.

Conformity assessment requirements are now part of the mandatory language.

Arc Flash Labeling Requirements and Strategies

What is really required with arc flash labels?  How can you simplify the labeling process? NFPA 70E 130.5(H) defines the minimal information for Equipment Labels (sometimes referred to as Arc Flash Labels. There are many other factors to consider such as colors, signal words, additional information, minimal information and more. This program discusses the requirements, and provides simplification strategies for arc flash labels and how to minimize the need to re-label.

2021 NFPA 70E Major Changes

2021 NFPA 70EThis FREE 1 hour training program provides an overview of the major changes to the 2021 Edition of NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace.  Once again this latest edition is filled with many changes and revisions.

First published in 1979, the 2021 edition places a greater emphasis on the Electrically Safe Work Condition. Many definitions have been revised for greater clarity, Article 110 has been reorganized and includes material from Articles 120 and 130 being relocated to Article 110.

A new subsection for Electrically Safe Work Policy was added, a new informational note regarding the use of interactive web-based training (like learn.brainfiller.com) was added, operating a circuit breaker for the first time after installation is now considered a likelihood of an arc flash.

Guidance regarding risk reduction methods when the incident energy exceeds the arc rating of commercially available PPE when testing absence of voltage, New Article 360 Safety-Related Requirements for Capacitors and much more!

See the course modules below.  Register and take this class for FREE!

.

Other On Demand Classes

2021 NFPA 70E – Major Changes / Refresher Training

2021 NFPA 70E Training Brainfiller.com

On Demand Class - Learn Anywhere, Anytime at Your Pace!

  • 8 PDHs | 0.8 CEUs
  • 23 Video Modules
  • Final Quiz - Minimum Passing Score of 70% Required for Continuing Education Credit
  • Take the quiz as many times as you need
  • Certificate of Completion with PDH/CEU Credit
  • No Time Limit
  • Program does NOT expire
  • Store this program in your personal library for future reference
  • Learn about the Major Changes to the 2021 Edition

Jim Phillips takes you on a deep dive with the 2021 Edition of NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace. In this 8-hour online training class, Jim goes behind the scenes and answers “why” when it comes to some of the changes to this standard..

Highlights of the Major Changes Include:

  • Revised definitions
  • Reorganization of Article 110
  • Moving Priority from Article 105 to 110.1 to emphasize the importance
  • Addition of informational note regarding online training.
  • New note regarding multi-employer work sites – more than one employer can be responsible.
  • New section about Electrically Safe Work Policy.
  • There is a New Section about Equipment Use.
  • Clarification regarding “Block or relive stored non-electrical energy devices”.
  • New task added to Table 130.5(C) “operating a circuit breaker or switch for the first time under all conditions is listed as “Yes” regarding likelihood of an arc flash incident.
  • A new informational note was added regarding the arc rating of outer layers used for safety or protection from the elements.
  • New examples of risk reduction methods when testing absence of voltage with an incident energy greater than arc rating of commercially available arc rated PPE.
  • A new Article 360 regarding capacitor safety was added.
  • Annex D was revised to reflect the 2018 Edition of IEEE 1584.
  • Annex R – Working with Capacitors was added.

  • Jim Phillips, P.E.

    Jim is not just another trainer reading a script. For almost 40 years, Jim has been helping tens of thousands of people around the world understand electrical power system design, analysis and safety. Having taught over 2500 classes during his career to people from all seven continents (Yes Antarctica is included!), he has developed a reputation for being one of the best trainers and public speakers in the electric power industry. His unique insider's perspective is based on:

  • Four Decades in the Industry
  • Vice Chair: IEEE 1584 Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculationsl.
  • International Chair: IEC TC78 Live Working – 40 + Standards and Documents
  • Technical Committee Member: NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace
  • Steering Committee: IEEE/NFPA Arc Flash Research Collaboration
  • Author: “How Guide to Perform Arc Flash Hazard Calculations”
  • Contributing Editor: NECA’s multi-award-winning Electrical Contractor Magazine
  • Member: ASTM F18 Committee.

  • 2021 NFPA 70E Major Changes and Refresher Training

    Online Class Agenda – 8 PDHs / 0.8 CEUs

    INTRODUCTION

    HUMAN EFFECTS
    Physiological Effects, Tissue Damage, Internal Organ Damage, Burns, Fibrillation, “Curable” 2nd Degree Burn Requirements, Arc Blast Pressure, Sound Pressure, Incident Energy and 1.2 Calories/cm2

    CODES AND STANDARDS
    OSHA 29 CFR – Part 1910, Subpart S, NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2021 NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, IEEE Standard 1584™, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations, Legal Requirements, Liability

    CATEGORIES OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
    Electric Shock, Arc Flash, Arc Blast, Sound Pressure, Shrapnel, UV Light

    OVERVIEW OF MAJOR CHANGES TO THE 2021 EDITION

    NEW AND REVISED DEFINITIONS

    OVERVIEW OF REORGANIZATION OF ARTICLE 110

    ELECTRICAL SAFETY PROGRAM
    Overview of Changes, General, Inspection,  Awareness and Self Discipline, Electrical Safety Program Principles, Controls and Procedures, Risk Assessment Procedure, Job Safety Planning and Job Briefing, Incident Investigation (New), Auditing

    QUALIFIED PERSON
    NFPA 70E Definition, Trained and Knowledgeable Requirements, Identifies Hazards

     ARTICLE 120

    REVISION TO LOCKOUT DEVICE REQUIREMENTS
    New addition to align NFPA 70E with OSHA language

    PROCESS FOR ESTABLISHING AND VERIFYING AN ELECTRICALLY SAFE WORK CONDITION
    Verification Steps, Methods Used, PPE to be Worn During Procedure

    ARTICLE 130

    OVERVIEW OF REORGANIZATION
    Review of reorganization to accommodate material being relocated to Article 110

    ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL WORK PERMIT
    Purpose of Permit, Data Required, Approvals Process, Clarification to Relieve Stored Mechanical Energy – Now Referred to as “Nonelectrical Energy”

    SHOCK RISK ASSESSMENT
    Overview, General, Shock Risk Assessment, Addition of Estimate of Likelihood and Severity Requirement, Additional Protective Measures, Shock PPE, Documentation, Shock Protection Boundaries, Limited Approach Boundary, Restricted Approach Boundary

    ARC FLASH RISK ASSESSMENT
    Reorganization Overview, General, Estimate of Likelihood of Severity, Arc Flash Risk Assessment, Additional Protective Measures, Documentation, Arc Flash Boundary, Arc Flash PPE, Incident Energy Analysis Method, IEEE 1584, Effect of Arc Flash Duration, Time Current Curves and Protective Devices, Incident Energy and Distance,  Selection of Arc Rated Clothing and PPE. Equipment Labeling, Exception for No Detail on Labels.

    ARCING SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT AND ARC DURATION
    Basic concepts of short circuit current, understanding arc duration and time-current curves

    ARC FLASH BOUNDARY
    AFB Definition, Purpose, How to Determine, Work Within the Arc Flash Boundary

    NFPA 70E PPE CATEGORIES
    Defining the PPE Category using NFPA 70E Tables, PPE Category 1, 2, 3, 4 Requirements, Limitations of Tables, Using Calculations Instead, PPE Category Tables for DC arc flash

    PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
    General, Care of Equipment, Personal Protective Equipment, Arc Rated Clothing,  ASTM Testing, Face Protection, Hand Protection, Foot Protection, Head, Face, Neck and Chin Protection, Eye and Hearing Protection, Addition of IEC Standards to list of PPE standards.

    ARC FLASH WARNING LABELS
    NFPA 70E Requirements, ANSI Z535, Signal Words, Information to List on the Label, Simplified Labeling Strategy, Exception where specific information not required.

    OVERVIEW OF CHAPTERS TWO AND THREE
    Summary of Major Topics, New Article 360 Safety-Related Requirements for Capacitors

    INFORMATIVE ANNEXES
    Summary of Informative Annexes, Annex D – Deletion of IEEE 1584 Equations – Why, New Annex R – Working With Capacitors

    Short Circuit Analysis

     SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS – On Demand

    DSC00377Devices

    National Electrical Code Section 110.9 Interrupting Ratings states: Equipment intended to interrupt current at fault levels shall have an interrupting rating at nominal circuit voltage at least equal to the current that is available at the line terminals of the equipment.

    Equipment intended to interrupt current at other than fault levels shall have an interrupting rating at nominal circuit voltage at least equal to the current that must be interrupted.

    How would one know whether this requirement has been met? By conducing a short circuit study to predict the available fault current at each piece of equipment.  This course takes you through the process of performing a short circuit study including the necessary data, study process and detailed short circuit calculations using Jim Phillips’ calculations worksheets which are part of this online course.

    SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS – INTRODUCTION
    Short Circuit Study Requirements, NEC® 110.9 and 110.10, Interrupting and Withstand Ratings, Data Requirements, Available Utility Short Circuit Current, Conductor Impedance, Source Impedance, X/R Ratio, Per Phase Calculations, Thevenin Equivalent, Impedance

    CONDUCTOR IMPEDANCE AND SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
    Determining the Source Impedance, Calculating the Conductor Impedance, Conductor Impedance Tables, Conductor Calculation Worksheets.  In Class Problems – Short Circuit Calculations with Conductor Impedance

    TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE AND SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
    Transformer Testing and Percent Impedance, X/R Ratio,  Using Percent Impedance for Short Circuit Calculations,  Determining the Source Impedance in Percent, Infinite Bus Calculations, Transformer Calculation Worksheets.  In Class Problems – Short Circuit Calculations with Transformer Impedance

    MOTOR CONTRIBUTION
    Theory of Motor Short Circuit Contribution, Sub-Transient Reactance, Xd”, Effect of Motor Contribution on Short Circuit Current, Multipliers for Motor Contribution.  In Class Problems – Consideration of Motor Contribution

    DEVICE INTERRUPTING RATINGS
    Circuit Breaker and Fuse Interrupting Ratings, UL and ANSI Testing Methods, Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Short Circuit Current, Effect of X/R Ratio on Interrupting Ratings, Multiplying Factors when the X/R and Asymmetry are Too Large

    SERIES RATINGS
    Development of Series Ratings, Proper Application of Series Ratings, Dynamic Impedance, Fully Rated vs. Series Rated, Current Limitation, Let Thru Current, U.L. Tests

    CASE PROBLEM
    Short Circuit Study of Small Industrial System.  Calculations Include Source, Conductor and Transformer Impedance, Motor Contribution and Protective Device Adequacy Evaluation

    Fundamentals of Electrical Safety and 2021 NFPA 70E

    On Demand Class – Learn Anywhere, Anytime at Your Pace!

    • 2 PDHs | 0.2 CEUs
    • 9 Video Modules
    • Final Quiz – Minimum Passing Score of 70% Required for Continuing Education Credit
    • Take the quiz as many times as you need
    • Certificate of Completion with PDH/CEU Credit
    • No Time Limit
    • Program does NOT expire
    • Store this program in your personal library for future reference
    • Learn about the main elements of electrical safety
    • Group Discounts up to 30% off.  Train your entire staff with this class. Contact us at 800.874.8883

    Questions?

    Contact us at: 800.874.8883 or email: [email protected]

    Fundamentals of Electrical Safety

    Online Class Agenda - 2 PDHs / 0.2 CEUs

    This 2 hour On-Demand class by Jim Phillips addresses many important electrical safety topics for those that need a quick refresher or an introduction to the fundamentals.

    • Module 1: Introduction to Electrical Hazards
      • Shock/Electrocution
      • Arc Flash Hazard
      • Video – Switchboard Arc Flash Test
      • Blast Pressure
      • Ultraviolet Light
      • Sound Pressure
      • 1.2 calories/centimter2
      • Onset of Second-Degree Burn
    • Module 2: Electrical Safety Terminology
      • Exposed vs. Interaction
      • Condition of Maintenance
      • Qualified Person
      • Shock Hazard
      • Working Distance
      • Inspection –
      • Electrocution Investigation
      • Video – Uninsulated Tool and Arc Flash Test
    • Module 3: Risk Control | Electrically Safe Work Condition
      • Hierarchy of Risk Controls
      • Job Safety Planning
      • Checklist
      • Establishing an Electrically Safe Work Condition
      • Incident Investigations (What Happened?)
    • Module 4: Shock Risk Assessment
      • Energized Electrical Work Permit
      • Steps of Shock Risk Assessment
      • Estimate Likelihood and Severity (New for 2021)
      • Limited Approach Boundary
      • Restricted Approach Boundary
      • Approach Boundaries Table
    • Module 5: Arc Flash Risk Assessment
      • Arc Flash Investigation – Permanent Disability
      • General Requirements
      • Estimate Likelihood of Occurrence of an Arc Flash
      • Normal vs. Abnormal Equipment Condition
      • Operation of Device for First Time (New for 2021)
      • Arc Flash Boundary
    •  
    • Module 6: Incident Energy Analysis Method
      • Working Distance
      • Incident Energy Analysis PPE Selection Tables
      • PPE up to 12 cal/cm2
      • PPE greater than 12 cal/cm2
      • Additional garments for weather or hi-vis vests
      • Video – Motor Control Center Arc Flash
      • Transformer Secondary Blind Spot
    • Module 7: PPE Category Method
      • PPE Category Table
      • PPE Category maximum short circuit current
      • PPE Category maximum fault clearing time
      • Example: Determining short circuit current
      • Example: Determining fault clearing time
    • Module 8: Arc Flash Labels
      • Minimum Requirements
      • Interpreting Labels
      • Labeling with multiple configurations
      • Signal Words and Colors
    • Module 9: PPE Selection
      • NFPA 70E Requirements
      • Care of equipment
      • Hearing Protection
      • Shock Protection
      • Insulating Glove Classes and Voltage Ratings
      • Arc Flash Suit
      • Face Shield and Balaclava
      • Arc Flash Hand Protection
      • Foot Protection
      • PPE Testing Lab
      • DC PPE Category Tables

    Design of Electrical Power Systems

    On Demand Class | 16 Hours | 43 Modules | by Jim Phillips, P.E.

    Watch the Preview Video
    • 16 PDHs | 1.6 CEUs
    • 43 Video Modules
    • 24 In Class Problems
    • Final Quiz – Minimum Passing Score of 70% Required for Continuing Education Credit
    • Take the quiz as many times as you need
    • Certificate of Completion with PDH/CEU Credit
    • Program does NOT expire
    • Store this program in your personal library for future reference
    • Packed with in class examples and problems
    • WATCH the Video Preview on the left

    Register 3 people for this program and a 4th goes for FREE!

    Groups of 10 or more receive discounts beginning at 30% off. 

    Questions?  Call us at 800-874-8883 (US) or email us at [email protected]

    Agenda

    INTRODUCTION
    Introduction to Electrical Power System Design, Electrical Safety Considerations, Electrical Codes and Standards, Economic Considerations of Design

    TYPES OF SYSTEM DESIGNS
    Radial Distribution Systems, Networks, Double Ended Substation, Primary Selective Systems, Loop System

    VOLTAGE SELECTION
    Selecting the Appropriate Voltage, 120/240V, 208Y/120V, 480Y/277V Systems, Medium Voltage Selection, Delta vs. Wye Configurations, Voltage Drop Calculations, Ferroresonance, Load Increase Requiring Changing Service to Medium Voltage.

    LOAD CALCULATIONS
    General Lighting Load Calculations, Appliance Loads, Receptacles Load Calculations, National Electrical Code Article 220 Requirements, VA per Square ft., Continuous vs. Non-Continuous, Demand Factors, Panel Schedules

    CONDUCTORS
    Conductor Selection, Conduit Sizing, Insulation Type, Correction Factors, Temperature Considerations, Neutral and Ground Conductors

    OVERCURRENT DEVICES
    Circuit Breaker, Fuses, Current Limitation, Introduction to Selective Coordination and Series Ratings

    PANELBOARDS
    Panelboard Sizing and Ratings, 80 percent vs. 100 percent ratings, Series Rated vs. Fully Rated Panels.

    SWITCHBOARDS
    Bus Ratings, Breaker and Fuse Selection, Bus Bracing, AIC, Layout, Series Ratings, Bus Structure, 6 Disconnect Rule

    LIGHTING DESIGN
    Zonal Cavity Lighting Calculations, Lighting Layout

    CASE PROBLEM
    Small Industrial Switchboard Circuit Design

    TRANSFORMERS
    Types of Transformers, Dry-Type, Liquid Filled, Cast Coil Designs, Temperation Ratings, Fan Cooling, Insulation Characteristics, Percent Impedance,  Harmonics and K Factor, Transformer Protection Based on NEC® Article 450, Inrush Current, In Class Problems, Sizing and Protecting Transformers

    MOTOR CIRCUITS
    NEC® Article 430 Requirements, Motor Nameplate Full Load Amps vs. NEC Table’s Full Load Amps, Locked Rotor and Overload Protection, Insulation Class / Service Factor, Motor Tables, Sizing of Feeders, Protection, Motor Short Circuit Protection, In Class Problems – Designing Motor Circuits

    GROUNDING
    Grounding Electrode System Requirements, Equipment Grounding Conductor Selection, Separately Derived Systems, NEC® Article 250, Solidly Ground and Un-Grounded Systems, High Resistance Grounding, Ground, Ground Loops and Power Quality Issues

    HAZARDOUS/CLASSIFIED LOCATIONS
    Class I, II, and III, Divisions and Groups, Explosion Proof Equipment, Intrinsically Safe Circuits

    LIGHTNING PROTECTION
    Concept of Lightning Protection, Air Terminals, Conductors, NFPA 780 Requirements

    GENERATORS
    Emergency Vs. Standby, Selection of Generator and Prime Mover, Gasoline, Gas (LP/Natural), Diesel Driven, Design Considerations, Generator Loads

    AUTOMATIC TRANSFER SWITCHES
    Size and Withstand Current Ratings of Transfer Switches, 3 Pole vs. 4 Pole, Protection of the ATS

    UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES
    UPS Systems, Types, Heat Loss, Compatibility with Generators

    CASE PROBLEM
    Designing a Transformer Circuit for an Industrial Facility

    Instructor: Jim Phillips, P.E.

    Jim is not just another trainer reading a script. For almost 40 years, Jim has been helping tens of thousands of people around the world understand electrical power system design, analysis and safety. Having taught over 2500 classes during his career to people from all seven continents (Yes Antarctica is included!), he has developed a reputation for being one of the best trainers and public speakers in the electric power industry.

    When asked questions about some topics,  Jim’s explanations often run along the line of “Well, here’s what we were thinking and a bit of history” or “Here is why it was written in a particular way.”

    His unique insider’s perspective is based on:

    • Four Decades in the Industry
    • Vice Chair: IEEE 1584 Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations.
    • International Chair: IEC TC78 Live Working – 40 + Standards and Documents
    • Technical Committee Member: NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace
    • Steering Committee: IEEE/NFPA Arc Flash Research Collaboration
    • Author: “How Guide to Perform Arc Flash Hazard Calculations”
    • Contributing Editor: NECA’s multi-award-winning Electrical Contractor Magazine
    • Member: ASTM F18 Committee.

    This class is divided by subject into 43 separate modules.  After completing the modules and passing a final quiz – 70%, a continuing education certificate can be printed and stored in your personal library for future use.

    How to Perform an Arc Flash Study – 2018 IEEE 1584

    Arc Flash Studies IEEE 1584 Training

    On Demand Class - Learn Anywhere, Anytime at Your Pace!

    • 16 PDHs | 1.6 CEUs
    • 23 Video Modules
    • Final Quiz - Minimum Passing Score of 70% Required for Continuing Education Credit
    • Take the quiz as many times as you need
    • Certificate of Completion with PDH/CEU Credit
    • No Time Limit
    • Program does NOT expire
    • Store this program in your personal library for future reference
    • 15 Detailed Arc Flash Calculation Problems
    • Jim Phillips' Arc Flash Caclulation Worksheets
    • WATCH the Video Preview on the left

    Jim Phillips takes you on a deep dive with the 2018 Edition of IEEE 1584 - Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Studies. In this 16-hour online training class, he takes you behind the scenes and answers “why” when it comes to this standard..

    Highlights of the Major Changes Include:

  • Five different electrode configurations to enable more detailed modeling
  • Vertical electrodes in a metal box/enclosure – VCB (also in 2002 Edition)
  • Vertical electrodes terminated in an insulating barrier in a metal box/enclosure – VCCB
  • Horizontal electrodes in a metal box/enclosure – HCB
  • Vertical electrodes in open air – VOA (also in 2002 Edition)
  • Horizontal electrodes in open air – HOA
  • More choices for enclosure types and sizes
  • Enclosure correction factor calculation to adjust for specific enclosure size
  • The effect of grounding has been eliminated
  • An arcing current variation factor calculation replaces the 85% factor
  • Calculations are performed at 1 of 3 voltage levels with interpolation to actual voltage
  • The 125 kVA transformer exception was replaced.

  • Using his ever popular calculation worksheets, Jim takes you through many example problems to illustrate using the equations, k constants and the effect of parameters such as enclosure size, electrode configuration, voltage and more. Each calculation is performed in 2 steps which includes an initial calculation based on one of three voltage levels and a second calculation interpolating to the specific system voltage. The 125 kVA “exception” was replaced. Learn why and what has replaced it. What about the 2 second rule? Jim discusses all this and much more.

    Jim Phillips, P.E.

    Jim is not just another trainer reading a script. For almost 40 years, Jim has been helping tens of thousands of people around the world understand electrical power system design, analysis and safety. Having taught over 2500 classes during his career to people from all seven continents (Yes Antarctica is included!), he has developed a reputation for being one of the best trainers and public speakers in the electric power industry. His unique insider's perspective is based on:

  • Four Decades in the Industry
  • Vice Chair: IEEE 1584 Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculationsl.
  • International Chair: IEC TC78 Live Working – 40 + Standards and Documents
  • Technical Committee Member: NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace
  • Steering Committee: IEEE/NFPA Arc Flash Research Collaboration
  • Author: “How Guide to Perform Arc Flash Hazard Calculations”
  • Contributing Editor: NECA’s multi-award-winning Electrical Contractor Magazine
  • Member: ASTM F18 Committee.

  • When asked questions about some topics, Jim’s explanations often run along the line of “Well, here’s what happened in the lab when we blew it up…” or “Here is why it was written in a particular way”

    Read Jim’s article outlining the major changes to IEEE 1584 [Read Article]

    How to Perform an Arc Flash Study - IEEE 1584

    Online Class Agenda - 16 PDHs / 1.6 CEUs

    ARC FLASH AND OTHER ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
    Physiological Effects, Electrocution, Tissue Damage, Internal Organ Damage, Burns Fibrillation, “Curable” 2nd Degree Burn

    CODES AND STANDARDS
    OSHA 29 CFR – Part 1910, Subpart S, NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2018 NFPA 70E, (CSA Z462 for Canada Classes) Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, 2018 IEEE Standard 1584™, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations, Legal Requirements, Liability

     2018 EDITION – IEEE 1584 – DEVELOPMENT
    History of the Development of the 2018 IEEE 1584, IEEE/NFPA Collaboration, Working Group and Project Team, Almost 2000 New Arc Flash Tests, What Took So Long? Range of Applicability, Data Requirements, Study Process, Table of Results for the Arc Flash Study Report.

    ARC FLASH CIRCUIT DYNAMICS 
    Arcing Faults vs. Bolted Faults, Effect of Current on Overcurrent Device Clearing Time, Current Limitation, Effect of Transformer Size and Source Strength

    MODELING THE ARC FLASH STUDY
    One-Line, Data, System Configuration, Multiple Sources

    ELECTRIC UTILITY COMPANY DATA
    What data should be requested, minimum and maximum fault current, why not to use infinite bus calculations, what if the data can not be obtained?

    OVERVIEW OF CHANGES TO THE 2018 IEEE 1584
    Introduction and Summary of the Major Changes

    ELECTRODE CONFIGURATIONS
    VCB – Vertical electrodes in a metal box/enclosure, VCCB Vertical electrodes terminated in an insulating barrier in a metal box/enclosure, HCB – Horizontal electrodes in a metal box/enclosure, VOA – Vertical electrodes in open air, HOA – Horizontal electrodes in open air

    ARCING SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATIONS– LOW VOLTAGE
    Calculation of Intermediate Average Arcing Current, Calculation Final Arcing Current – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

    ENCLOSURE SIZES AND TYPES
    New Enclosures, Sizes and Types, Gap Distances

    ENCLOSURE SIZE CORRECTION FACTOR CALCULATIONS
    Determining Correction Factor for Enclosure Size.  Shallow vs. Typical Enclosure

    WORKING DISTANCE
    Selection of Working Distance for Incident Energy Calculations

    ARC DURATION
    Using Time Current Curves, 2 Second Cut Off, Arc Sustainability, 125 kVA Transformer Exception Deletion – Why?

    INCIDENT ENERGY CALCULATIONS – LOW VOLTAGE
    Calculation of Intermediate Incident Energy, Calculation of Final Incident Energy – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

    ARC FLASH BOUNDARY CALCULATIONS – LOW VOLTAGE
    Calculation of Intermediate Arc Flash Boundary, Calculation of Final Arc Flash Boundary – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

    ARCING CURRENT VARIATION FACTOR
    Calculation the Arcing Current Variation Factor for Minimum Arcing Current, Replacement for 85% factor, Applies to all Voltages

    ARCING SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATIONS – MEDIUM VOLTAGE
    Calculation of Intermediate Average Arcing Current, Calculation Final Arcing Current – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

    INCIDENT ENERGY CALCULATIONS – MEDIUM VOLTAGE
    Calculation of Intermediate Incident Energy, Calculation of Final Incident Energy – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

    ARC FLASH BOUNDARY CALCULATIONS – MEDIUM VOLTAGE
    Calculation of Intermediate Arc Flash Boundary, Calculation of Final Arc Flash Boundary – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

    DC ARC FLASH CALCULATIONS  
    V-I Characteristics, DC Arc Resistance Calculations, DC Incident Energy Calculations, Box vs. Open Arc Calculations, Calculation Worksheets, Problem Solving

    COMPARISON OF CALCULATION METHODS AND CONFIGURATIONS
    Calculation Results from 2002 IEEE 1584 Compared to 2018 IEEE 1584, Comparison or Results for VCB, VCCB, HCB

    MODELING TIPS
    Selection of Electrode Configuration, Enclosure Size, Gap Distances

    OTHER HAZARD MEASUREMENTS
    Light, Blast Pressure, Sound Pressure

    DETERMINING PPE REQUIREMENTS FROM INCIDENT ENERGY CALCULATIONS
    Using calculated incident energy to determine PPE requirements. Simplifying the Selection

     ARC FLASH WARNING LABELS
    Jim’s Simplification for Arc Flash Labels to Reduce or Eliminate the Need to Re-Label, Minimum Requirements, Label Locations, ANSI Z535 Requirements, Incident Energy vs. Site Specific PPE vs. Arc Rating, Signal Words and Colors

    Learn the Answers to These Questions and More:

    • How do I organize a study?
    • What equipment really needs labeled?
    • Where do I obtain the required data?
    • How much information is really required on the arc flash label?
    • Do I need all data such as conductor lengths?
    • How do I calculate AC incident energy, arcing current & arc flash boundary?
    • What is the difference between low voltage and medium voltage calculations?
    • How do I calculate DC incident energy from an arc flash?
    • How do I calculate DC arc resistance and what is a V-I characteristic?
    • How accurate are the IEEE 1584 calculations?
    • Why do I also have to analyze arc flash during for minimum fault currents?
    • What very important question do I ask the electric utility?
    • Are time current curves a reliable way to determine arc flash clearing time?
    • What if I have a low arcing current that causes a long clearing time?
    • Why was the 125 kVA 208V exclusion deleted?
    • Is the “2 second cut off” appropriate?
    • How long can an arc sustain itself? – discussion of recent test data.
    • Why do I use a comparison of 100% and the minimum arcing current?
    • Does the type of equipment make a difference in the calculations?
    • What changed regarding grounded vs. ungrounded systems?
    • What about Arc Blast, Light and Sound Pressure?
    • How do I include motor contribution to the calculations?
    • How can current limiting devices reduce the incident energy?
    • Why use remote operation, arc resistant equipment, and maintenance switches?
    • Why is selecting the correct working distance an important part of the calculations?

    What is an Arc Flash Study?

    2018 IEEE 1584 Major Changes

    As part of an arc flash study (Risk Assessment) the incident energy exposure level is determined based on the working distance of the employee’s face and chest areas from a prospective arc source. Arc-rated clothing and other PPE is selected with a rating sufficient for the incident energy exposure and shall be used by the employee based on the specific task. IEEE Std. 1584 tm, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations is the method used globally for calculating the prospective incident energy.
    NFPA 70E and CSA Z462 also require determining the arc flash boundary, which is the distance from a potential arc source where the incident energy is 1.2 cal/cm2. This value is considered to be the point at which the onset of a second-degree burn occurs. Live work performed outside of the arc flash boundary does not require PPE, although the risk of some injury still exists.

    The concept of these requirements is simple. At each location, the arc flash study is used to determine: The perspective incident energy exposure for a worker’s chest and face, the rating of PPE based on the perspective incident energy, the arc flash boundary.

    Although NFPA 70E provides more generalized PPE tables as a simplified alternative for PPE selection, an arc flash calculation study requires performing calculations to estimate the magnitude of incident energy exposure. These calculations are based on specific details, including the available short circuit current, device clearing time, grounding, arc gap distance, equipment type, and many other factors.

    This information, as well as data regarding electric shock protection and approach limits, can be included on the arc flash warning labels placed on the equipment under study. Before conducting energized work, a qualified worker can refer to the label and obtain the data necessary for the shock hazard risk assessment and the arc flash hazard risk assessment as required by NFPA 70E and CSA Z462.

    Although an arc flash study can appear to be complex, it can be more manageable when broken down into basic steps as outlined in this online training program.

    Medium Voltage Power Systems

    Medium Voltage Training

    On Demand Class - Learn Anywhere, Anytime at Your Pace!

    • 16 PDHs | 1.6 CEUs
    • 20 Video Modules
    • Final Quiz - Minimum Passing Score of 70% Required for Continuing Education Credit
    • Take the quiz as many times as you need
    • Certificate of Completion with PDH/CEU Credit
    • No Time Limit
    • Program does NOT expire
    • Store this program in your personal library for future reference
    • Jim Phillips' Differential Relay Setting and Current Transformer Saturation Worksheets
    • 33 In-Class Problems and Examples
    • WATCH the Video Preview on the left

    This online training class by Jim Phillips, P.E. was recorded during his 16 hour live streaming program.  This class takes you through the fundamentals of medium voltage power systems including the components, equipment, design and operation problems as well as overcurrent protection, surge protection, insulation coordination and many other important aspects of medium voltage power systems.

    Jim has developed this course based on almost four decades of extensive experience with industrial, commercial and utility power systems and standards development. He is not just another trainer reading a script.  Jim’s training is based on his insider’s view from being very active with many different standards committees which provides him with the unique perspective, literally from the inside. Coupled with his broad electrical power background, he loves sharing his experience and insider’s view with others.

    Jim discusses a wide array of topics in this class including overcurrent relays and relay settings including determining the current transformer ratio, CT saturation calculations, determining overcurrent relay settings and calculating transformer differential relay settings. This class also includes many other topics such as surge protection, insulation coordination and more.

    Medium Voltage Power Systems

    Online Class Agenda - 16 PDHs / 1.6 CEUs

    INTRODUCTION

    Medium Voltage Systems, Voltage Ranges, Special Considerations

    Failure Modes, Voltage Stress, Thermal Stress

    MEDIUM VOLTAGE SAFETY

    Electrocution at Low vs. Medium Voltage, Arc Flash Issues, Qualified Person,

    Approach Boundaries

    TYPES OF MEDIUM VOLTAGE SYSTEMS

    Utility and Industrial One lines, Reliability Requirements, Overhead and Underground

    Systems, Regulated Systems

    MEDIUM VOLTAGE CABLE

    Copper vs. Aluminum Design, Voltage Ratings

    Insulation Ratings, 100%, 133%, 173% Insulation Levels, Shielding Requirements,

    Electric Fields, Terminating MV Conductors, Orientation of Overhead Lines

    MEDIUM VOLTAGE SUBSTATION TRANSFORMERS

    Core and Coil Design, Aluminum and Copper Windings, Transformer Characteristics, Tank Construction, Loss Evaluation, Loss Calculations, Efficiency Calculations, Regulation

    SPOT NETWORKS

    Spot Network Design, Network Protectors, Network Protector Relay Operation, Directional Protection Requirements, Large Network Fault Currents

    PARTIAL DISCHARGE

    Corona, Surface Tracking, Voltage Stress, Sensing Partial Discharge, Component Failure

    GROUNDING MEDIUM VOLTAGE SYSTEMS

    Resistance Grounding, Solid Grounding, Ungrounded Delta Charging Current, Coefficient of Grounding Calculations, Effect of Ground Faults on Delta Voltage, Sizing Grounding Resistors, High Resistance Grounding vs. Low Resistance Grounding

    OVERVIEW OF SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

    Positive, Negative and Zero Sequence Impedance, Per Unit

    Line-to-Ground Short Circuit Calculations

    SURGE PROTECTION

    Lightning and Switching Surges, Classes of Surge Arresters, Insulation Basic Impulse Level BIL , Basic Impluse Switching Insulation Level (BSL) Front of Wave (FOW), MCOV Ratings – (Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage) TOV – (Maximum Temporary Over Voltage Capability), Protective Characteristics, Surge Arrester Selection, Energy Capability, Effect of Grounding on Arrester Selection, Insulation Coordination, Protective Ratio and Protective Margin Calculations.

    CURRENT TRANSFORMER APPLICATIONS

    Ratings, Selection Process, Accuracy, Saturation, Excitation Curves, Burden,

    Calculation, Momentary Ratings, CT Saturation Calculations for Performance

    MEDIUM VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS

    Vacuum, Air, Oil, SF6 Designs, Symmetrical Interrupting Rating, K-Rated

    Voltage Factor, Close and Latch Capability

    OVERCURRENT RELAYS

    Protective Relay Concepts, Selective Coordination Principles, ANSI Device Numbers i.e. 50, 51, 67, 32, 27, etc. Amp Tap, Time Dial, Instantaneous Setting  Relay Setting Calculations, Digital Relays, Electromechanical Relays, Time Margins, Coordination Between Devices

    RECLOSERS

    Application on Feeder Circuits, Recloser Settings, Continuous Current and Interrupting Ratings

    MEDIUM VOLTAGE FUSES

    Medium Voltage Switches, Load Rating, Expulsion vs. Current Limiting Fuse Characteristics, E and R Rated Fuses, Fuse Cutouts, ANSI Time Current Points

    MEDIUM VOLTAGE PROTECTION CONCEPTS

    Medium Voltage Protection, Relays, Circuit Breakers, R and E rated Fuses,

    Short Circuit vs. Overcurrent Protection

    DISTRIBUTION FEEDER PROTECTION

    Protection with Fuses – 300%, Overcurrent Protection with Relays – 600%,

    Short Circuit Damage Characteristics, Relay “Reach” for End of Line Faults

    ROTATING MACHINERY PROTECTION

    Protection Requirements, Generator Decrement Curves, Thermal Damage Curves, Reactive,

    Capability Curves, Differential Protection, Protection Example Calculations

    MEDIUM VOLTAGE MOTOR CONTROLLERS

    Protection Requirements, Motor Management Relays, Circuit Breaker Protection, Relaying, Class R Rated Fuses

    TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

    ANSI C57 Transformer Thru Fault Curves, Impact of Transformer Winding Configuration,

    Overview of Differential Protection, Inrush and Harmonic Restraint, Hands On Differential Relay Setting Calculation Problems and Calculation Worksheets.

    Questions? Call us 800.874.8883 (U.S.) or email