Arc Flash & Electrical Power Training by Jim Phillips | 800.874.8883

Testing

Electrical Power System Engineering

Medium Voltage Power Systems

2017 Nov 5 8:00 am OSHA 1910.269 – Qualified Worker Training – Substation Entry

OSHA 1910.269 TrainingThis one-day class is designed to teach the skills required to enter secured areas. The course covers federal regulations related to entering a secured area; minimum approach distances or clearances; personal protective equipment; job briefings; substation entrance procedures; and opening padmount transformers, switchgear and metering compartments.

Employees typically open and/or view electrical equipment in secured areas to take information off of nameplates, readings from meters or gauges, etc. Following OSHA 1910.269, this course does not teach or certify a person to work on electrical equipment.

Who Should Attend:

Individuals who do not hold an electrical journeyman certificate, but as a part of their duties must enter or open secured areas such as substations, pad mounted transformers, switchgear, vaults, and metering cabinets. Engineers, technicians, meter readers, and other operations personnel are required by OSHA 1910.269 to have this training.

Jim Phillips – Instructor:

Jim is not just another trainer reading a script.   Jim’s training is based on his insider’s view from holding many leadership positions for the development of various electrical safety standards coupled with his arc flash testing experience and broad industrial and utility electrical power background.  This provides him a unique perspective from the inside – a perspective he loves sharing with others. When asked questions about some topics, his explanations often run along the line of “Well, here’s what happened in the lab when we blew it up…”

Here is a sample of Jim’s involvement.

Vice Chair – IEEE 1584 – IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Calculations
International Chair – Geneva, Switzerland based,  IEC TC78 Live Working – 40+ global standards including many for arc flash.
IEEE/NFPA Arc Flash Collaborative Research Project – Member of the Steering Committee
Author of Complete Guide to Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies

INTRODUCTION

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS

Electric Shock, Electrocution, Arc Flash, Burn Injury, Blast, UV Light,  Incident Energy and 1.2 Calories/cm2

CODES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

OSHA 29 CFR – Part 1910.269, ANSI C2 – National Electrical Safety Code,  IEEE Standard 1584™, Guide for Arc Flash Hazard Analysis

OSHA QUALIFIED WORKER REQUIREMENTS

Training Requirements, Safety Procedures

WORKING ON OR NEAR EXPOSED ENERGIZED PARTS

Who is qualified, When are Two Employees Required, Conductive Articles, Clothing

QUALIFIED PERSON

Trained, Knowledgeable, Understands Hazards, Identifying Hazards, Minimum Approach Distance

TWO EMPLOYEE REQUIREMENTS

When are two employees required for the task

SUBSTATION ENTRY

Requirements for Entering / Working Within Substations, Requirements upon Arrival at Substation,

Visual Inspection/Walk Around, Job Briefing

SUBSTATION GROUNDING / GRID

Touch and Step Potential, Ground Grid, Ground Mat

REVIEW OF MAJOR SUBSTATION EQUIPMENT

Transformers, Types of Circuit Breakers, Protective Relays, Substation Control House, Switchgear, Fuses

MINIMUM APPROACH DISTANCE

OSHA and NESC Definitions and Requirements, Significance of MAD,

CLOTHING REQUIREMENTS

OSHA Requirements, Arc Rated Clothing, NFPA 70E and ASTM Standards

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT PPE

Arc Flash Suits, Face Protection, Hand Protection, Foot Protection, Selection of Sufficient Arc Rating

ARC FLASH WARNING LABELS

Interpreting Label Information, Incident Energy at Working Distance, Arc Flash Boundary, PPE Requirements

INCIDENT ENERGY ANALYSIS

Determining Incident Energy – cal/cm^2, Meaning of information when selecting safe work practices and PPE

WRAP UP AND SUBSTATION TOUR (If Available at Site)



Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

2017 Nov 2 8:00 am NFPA 70E – 2018 – Update/Refresher Training – 1 Day

Conference1Learn about the major changes to the  2018 Edition of NFPA 70E  as well as receive refresher training about electrical safety and the NFPA 70E requirements.  This class covers the major changes to the 2018 Edition of  NFPA 70E such as a greater emphasis on the Risk Assessment, Elimination of the 40 cal/cm2 Informational Note, a new exception where details such as the Arc Flash Boundary and PPE may not be required to be listed on the Arc Flash Label, New definitions for Electrical Safety Program, Condition of Maintenance, Working Distance and many revised definitions, Major re-organizations of Article 120 and many other revisions, additions and changes!   Review how to perform a shock and arc flash risk assessment, use energized electrical work permits, select PPE, understand arc flash labels, know what to do when working within the arc flash boundary and much more.

Jim Phillips is not just another trainer reading a script.   Jim’s training is based on his insider’s view from holding many leadership positions for the development of various electrical safety standards coupled with his arc flash testing experience and broad electrical power background.  This provides him a unique perspective from the inside – a perspective he loves sharing with others. When asked questions about some topics, his explanations often run along the line of “Well, here’s what happened in the lab when we blew it up…”

Here is a sample of Jim’s involvement.

Vice Chair – IEEE 1584 – IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Calculations
International Chair – Geneva, Switzerland based,  IEC TC78 Live Working – 40+ global standards including many for arc flash.
IEEE/NFPA Arc Flash Collaborative Research Project – Member of the Steering Committee
Author of Complete Guide to Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies

For a summary of the 2018 changes to NFPA 70E based on Jim’s article published in the multi-award winning Electrical Contractor Magazine, [CLICK HERE]

[Learn more about Jim Phillips]

Watch Jim explain why electrical equipment’s doors are not considered as protection from an arc flash.  One of his arc flash tests illustrates how doors can blow open during an arc flash.

INTRODUCTION

HUMAN EFFECTS
Physiological Effects, Tissue Damage, Internal Organ Damage, Burns, Fibrillation, “Curable” 2nd Degree Burn Requirements, Arc Blast Pressure, Sound Pressure, Incident Energy and 1.2 Calories/cm2

CODES AND STANDARDS
OSHA 29 CFR – Part 1910, Subpart S, NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2012 NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, IEEE Standard 1584™, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations, Legal Requirements, Liability

CATEGORIES OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
Electric Shock, Arc Flash, Arc Blast, Sound Pressure, Shrapnel, UV Light

ARCING SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT AND ARC DURATION
Basic concepts of short circuit current, understanding arc duration and time-current curves

OVERVIEW OF GLOBAL CHANGES

NEW AND REVISED DEFINITIONS

QUALIFIED PERSON
NFPA 70E Definition, Trained and Knowledgeable Requirements, Identifies Hazards

ELECTRICAL SAFETY PROGRAM
Overview of Changes, General, Inspection (New), Awareness and Self Discipline, Electrical Safety Program Principles, Controls and Procedures, Risk Assessment Procedure, Job Safety Planning and Job Briefing, Incident Investigation (New), Auditing

OVERVIEW OF REORGANIZATION OF ARTICLE 120

PROCESS FOR ESTABLISHING AND VERIFYING AN ELECTRICALLY SAFE WORK CONDITION
Verification Steps, Methods Used, PPE to be Worn During Procedure

SHOCK RISK ASSESSMENT
Reorganization Overview, General, Shock Risk Assessment, Additional Protective Measures, Shock PPE, Documentation, Shock Protection Boundaries, Limited Approach Boundary, Restricted Approach Boundary

ARC FLASH RISK ASSESSMENT
Reorganization Overview, General, Estimate of Likelihood of Severity, Arc Flash Risk Assessment, Additional Protective Measures, Documentation, Arc Flash Boundary, Arc Flash PPE, Incident Energy Analysis Method, IEEE 1584, Effect of Arc Flash Duration, Time Current Curves and Protective Devices, Incident Energy and Distance,  Selection of Arc Rated Clothing And PPE. Equipment Labeling, Exception for No Detail on Labels (New)

ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL WORK PERMIT
Purpose of Permit, Data Required, Approvals Process

ARC FLASH BOUNDARY
AFB Definition, Purpose, How to Determine, Work Within the Arc Flash Boundary

NFPA 70E PPE CATEGORIES
Defining the PPE Category using NFPA 70E Tables, PPE Category 1, 2, 3, 4 Requirements, Limitations of Tables, Using Calculations Instead, PPE Category Tables for DC arc flash

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
General, Care of Equipment, Personal Protective Equipment, Arc Rated Clothing,  ASTM Testing, Face Protection, Hand Protection, Foot Protection, Head, Face, Neck and Chin Protection, Eye and Hearing Protection, Deletion of PPE Standards from Mandatory Text

ARC FLASH WARNING LABELS
NFPA 70E Requirements, ANSI Z535, Signal Words, Information to List on the Label, New Exception where specific information not required.


Why is NFPA 70E Such an Important Standard?

According to OSHA 1910.132(d) The employer is responsible to assess the hazards in the work

Jim is setting up an arc flash test.

Jim is setting up an arc flash test.

place, select, have, and use the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and document the assessment. The use of NFPA 70E and other related industry consensus standards has been used to demonstrate whether an employer acted reasonably when there is a possible OSHA enforcement action taken.

So although NFPA 70E is not directly part of OSHA standards, it can be used as evidence of whether an employer acted reasonably in complying with OSHA standards and addressing “recognized hazards”.

There are more specific links within the OSHA standards as well. A typical example is found in 1910.335, Safeguards for personnel protection which requires: “(a)(1)(i) Employees working in areas where there are potential electrical hazards shall be provided with, and shall use, electrical protective equipment that is appropriate for the specific parts of the body to be protected and for the work to be performed.”

This regulation requires that employees must be properly protected from potential electrical hazards, by using adequate PPE, but it does not provide specific detail of what specific personal protective equipment is necessary to achieve the objective. NFPA 70E is used to define the specific details and requirements.


Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

2017 Nov 2 8:00 am Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies – 2 Days

How to Perform an Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Study using IEEE 1584 and DC Calculations

Conference1Jim Phillips, P.E. shows you how to perform arc flash calculations and conduct the comprehensive arc flash study in this two day arc flash training class. You will perform calculations of incident energy, arcing current, arc flash boundary and DC arc flash using Jim’s calculation worksheets. You will see how to simplify the arc flash study and arc flash labeling as well as understand how to properly model the power system.  Receive answers to questions such as: where did the 40 calories per square centimeter threshold come from and why was it removed, what if the utility information is unavailable,  what is the 125 kVA exception, what is the “2 second rule” all about, what really needs to go on an arc flash label and much more.  Plus, you will also get a peek into the status and development of the next edition of IEEE 1584.

Jim Phillips is not just another trainer reading a script.   Jim’s training is based on his insider’s view from holding many leadership positions for the development of various electrical safety standards coupled with his arc flash testing experience and broad electrical power background.  This provides him a unique perspective from the inside – a perspective he loves sharing with others. When asked questions about some topics, his explanations often run along the line of “Well, here’s what happened in the lab when we blew it up…”

Here is a sample of Jim’s involvement.

Vice Chair – IEEE 1584 – IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Calculations
International Chair – Geneva, Switzerland based,  IEC TC78 Live Working – 40+ global standards including many for arc flash.
IEEE/NFPA Arc Flash Collaborative Research Project – Member of the Steering Committee
Author of Complete Guide to Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies

For a summary of the 2018 changes to NFPA 70E based on Jim’s article published in the multi-award winning Electrical Contractor Magazine, [CLICK HERE]

[Learn more about Jim Phillips]

Watch Jim explain why an arc flash study is based on the equipment’s doors being open.  One of his arc flash tests illustrates how doors can blow open during an arc flash.

What You WILL Receive With this Arc Flash Training Class:

Arc Flash Class Recive These

Instructions on how to perform an Arc Flash Study
Jim’s AC AND DC arc flash calculation worksheets
Training manual containing over 300 pages
Jim’s 30 page Arc Flash Calculation Guide
Many calculation examples and problems
16 hours of Continuing Education Credit


Day One – Agenda – Arc Flash Training Class

HUMAN EFFECTS
Physiological Effects, Electrocution, Tissue Damage, Internal Organ Damage, Burns Fibrillation, “Curable” 2nd Degree Burn

CODES AND STANDARDS
OSHA 29 CFR – Part 1910, Subpart S, NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2018 NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, IEEE Standard 1584™, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations, Legal Requirements, Liability

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
Electric Shock, Arc Flash, Arc Blast, Ultraviolet Light, Sound Pressure, Burn Injury

ARC FLASH CIRCUIT DYNAMICS – FAULT CURRENT, ARC DURATION, PLASMA
Arcing Faults vs. Bolted Faults / IEEE 1584, Effect of Current on Overcurrent Device Clearing Time, Current Limitation, Effect of Transformer Size and Source Strength

2018 NFPA 70E REQUIREMENTS
Shock and Arc Flash Risk Assessments, Creating Energized Work Permits, Electrically Safe Working Conditions, Arc Flash Labels, Qualified Person

ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL WORK PERMIT
Purpose of Permit, Using IEEE 1584 Calculations for the EEWP, Approvals Process, Exemptions

ARC FLASH BOUNDARY
AFB Definition, Purpose, Work Within the Arc Flash Boundary, Jim’s Approach – Using Standardized Large Boundaries, Overview of IEEE 1584 approach.

ARC-FLASH HAZARD IDENTIFICATION TABLE
NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(a) Arc-Flash Hazard Identification for AC Systems,
When is Arc Flash PPE Required?

ARC-FLASH HAZARD PPE CATEGORIES
Use of NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(b) Arc-Flash Hazard PPE Categories

ARC RATED CLOTHING AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT SELECTION
Using IEEE 1584 Incident Energy Calculations to Select Protective Clothing and PPE, Face Protection, Head Protection, Hand Protection, Foot Protection, Limitations

IEEE 1584 –GUIDE FOR PERFORMING ARC FLASH HAZARD CALCULATIONS
History and Overview, Range of Applicability, Data Requirements, Study Process, Table of Results for the Arc Flash Study Report.


Part Two – Agenda – Arc Flash Training Class

ARC FLASH STUDY BASED ON IEEE 1584 CALCULATIONS
Overview, Data Requirements, Where to Begin

ELECTRIC UTILITY COMPANY DATA
What data should be requested, minimum and maximum fault current, why not to use infinite bus calculations, what if the data can not be obtained?

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM AND SYSTEM MODELING
Importance of the Up-to-Date Diagram, System Configurations, High vs. Low Fault Current, 125 kVA Transformer Exception, Motor Contribution

ARCING CURRENT CALCULATIONS, WORKSHEETS, EXAMPLE AND PROBLEMS
IEEE 1584 Arcing Current Calculations < 1kV and 1 kV to 15 kV, Defining the Arc Gap Based on Equipment Type, K1 for Arcing Current in a Box vs. Open Air

ARC FLASH DURATION – TIME CURRENT CURVES
Determining the Arcing Current Clearing time, 85% vs. 100%, 2 Second Cut Off Allowance, Time Current Curves, Arc Self Extinction

INCIDENT ENERGY CALCULATIONS, WORKSHEETS AND CLASS PROBLEMS
IEEE 1584 Incident Energy Calculations, Calculation Parameters, Calculation Factor Cf, Distance Exponent X, Working Distance, Grounded vs. Ungrounded, Effect of Equipment Type on Incident Energy Calculations

ARC FLASH BOUNDARY CALCULATIONS, WORKSHEETS AND CLASS PROBLEMS
Arc Flash Boundary Calculations Based IEEE 1584 Equations, Unusually Large Boundaries, Calculation Worksheets, Problem Solving

DC ARC FLASH CALCULATIONS, WORKSHEETS, EXAMPLES AND PROBLEMS
V-I Characteristics, DC Arc Resistance Calculations, DC Incident Energy Calculations, Box vs. Open Arc Calculations, Calculation Worksheets, Problem Solving

DETERMINING PPE REQUIRMENTS FROM INCIDENT ENERGY CALCULATIONS
Using calculated incident energy to determine PPE requirements. Simplifying the Selection

ARC FLASH WARNING LABELS
Simplifying the Arc Flash Labels, Minimum Requirements, Label Locations, ANSI Z535 Requirements, Incident Energy vs. Site Specific PPE vs. Arc Rating, Signal Words and Colors

RECOMMENDATIONS TO REDUCE THE ARC FLASH HAZARD
Increase Working Distance, Remote Operation, Maintenance Settings, Arc Resistant Equipment, Current Limiting Devices, “Holes” in Present Standards, The Electrically Safe Working Condition Paradox, Future Research and Developments

STEPS TO SIMPLIFY THE ARC FLASH CALCULATION STUDY
Jim’s “What would you like the answer to be?” Approach, Simplify the Selection of PPE and Arc Flash Boundary

QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS CLASS?  CONTACT US AT 800.874.8883


Receive Answers to These Questions and More:

• How do I organize a study?
• What equipment really needs labeled?
• Where do I obtain the required data?
• How much information is really required on the arc flash label?
• Do I need all data such as conductor lengths?
• How do I calculate AC incident energy, arcing current & arc flash boundary?
• What is the difference between low voltage and medium voltage calculations?
• How do I calculate DC incident energy from an arc flash?
• How do I calculate DC arc resistance and what is a V-I characteristic?
• How accurate are the IEEE 1584 calculations?
• Can I mix NFPA 70E Tables with arc flash calculations?
• What PPE should I wear when I am gathering data to study what PPE I should wear?
• Why do I also have to analyze arc flash during for minimum fault currents?
• What very important question do I ask the electric utility?
• Are time current curves a reliable way to determine arc flash clearing time?
• What if I have a low arcing current that causes a long clearing time?
• Is the 125 kVA 208V exclusion discussed in IEEE 1584 appropriate?
• Is the “2 second cut off” appropriate?
• How long can an arc sustain itself? – discussion of recent test data.
• How do I use the NESC Table 410.1 and 410.2 for electric utility systems?
• Why do I use a comparison of 100% and 85% of the arcing current?
• Does the type of equipment make a difference in the calculations?
• What about grounded vs. ungrounded systems?
• What about Arc Blast and the 40 calories / centimeter squared upper limit? – Is it realistic?
• How do I include motor contribution to the calculations?
• What are the Calculation Factor Cf and Distance Exponent Factor X?
• How do I greatly simplify the Arc Flash Protection Boundary and PPE selection?
• How can current limiting devices reduce the incident energy?
• Why use remote operation, arc resistant equipment, and maintenance switches?
• Why is selecting the correct working distance an important part of the calculations?
• What are Jim’s latest tests and what are plans for the next revision to IEEE 1584?
• Why is the L/E ratio ™ so important?


What is an Arc Flash Study?

See how to Calculate the Incident Energy at the Working Distance

See how to Calculate the Incident Energy at the Working Distance

As part of an arc flash study (Risk Assessment) the incident energy exposure level is determined based on the working distance of the employee’s face and chest areas from a prospective arc source. Arc-rated clothing and other PPE is selected with a rating sufficient for the incident energy exposure and shall be used by the employee based on the specific task. IEEE Std. 1584 tm, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations is the method used globally for calculating the prospective incident energy.
NFPA 70E also requires determining the arc flash boundary, which is the distance from a potential arc source where the incident energy is 1.2 cal/cm2. This value is considered to be the point at which the onset of a second-degree burn occurs. Live work performed outside of the arc flash boundary does not require PPE, although the risk of some injury still exists.

The concept of these requirements is simple. At each location, the arc flash study is used to determine: The perspective incident energy exposure for a worker’s chest and face, the rating of PPE based on the perspective incident energy, the arc flash boundary.

Although the 2015 Edition of NFPA 70E provides more generalized PPE tables as a simplified alternative for PPE selection, an arc flash calculation study requires performing calculations to estimate the magnitude of incident energy exposure. These calculations are based on specific details, including the available short circuit current, device clearing time, grounding, arc gap distance, equipment type, and many other factors.

This information, as well as data regarding electric shock protection and approach limits, can be included on the arc flash warning labels placed on the equipment under study. Before conducting energized work, a qualified worker can refer to the label and obtain the data necessary for the shock hazard risk assessment and the arc flash hazard risk assessment as required by NFPA 70E.

Although an arc flash study can appear to be complex, it can be more manageable when broken down into basic steps as outlined in this training program.


Why Perform an Arc Flash Study?

According to OSHA 1910.132(d) The employer is responsible to assess the hazards in the work

Jim is setting up an arc flash test.

Jim is setting up an arc flash test.

place, select, have, and use the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and document the assessment. The use of NFPA 70E and other related industry consensus standards has been used to demonstrate whether an employer acted reasonably when there is a possible OSHA enforcement action taken.

So although NFPA 70E is not directly part of OSHA standards, it can be used as evidence of whether an employer acted reasonably in complying with OSHA standards and addressing “recognized hazards”.

There are more specific links within the OSHA standards as well. A typical example is found in 1910.335, Safeguards for personnel protection which requires: “(a)(1)(i) Employees working in areas where there are potential electrical hazards shall be provided with, and shall use, electrical protective equipment that is appropriate for the specific parts of the body to be protected and for the work to be performed.”

This regulation requires that employees must be properly protected from potential electrical hazards, by using adequate PPE, but it does not provide specific detail of what specific personal protective equipment is necessary to achieve the objective. It might be considered that based on this generalized statement, the selection of the correct PPE is open to interpretation however, this would be incorrect and an Arc Flash study should be performed.


Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

2017 Jul 28 8:00 am Medium Voltage Power Systems

Medium Voltage Power Systems

Denver*: Live Streaming in 4 Sessions:
*Relocated from Denver to your location via live streaming.

Registration Deadline: April 10, 2020 (in order to receive training material)

A recording of this class will be made available to all registered attendees of the Live Streaming Event. Also, each attendee will receive credit for one free online training program.

April 20, 8:30 AM – 12:00 Noon MDT
April 21, 8:30 AM – 12:00 Noon MDT
April 22, 1:00 PM – 4:00 PM MDT
April 23, 8:30 PM – 4:00 PM MDT

Raleigh – As Presently Scheduled
August 3 – 4, Raleigh, NC


The backbone of many electric power systems is the medium voltage distribution system. Typically operating at voltages ranging from 2,400 to 34,500 Volts, voltage stress, corona, surges and protection of equipment all create unique challenges in design, equipment selection, operation and engineering.

This 2 day class by Jim Phillips, P.E. takes you through the fundamentals of medium voltage power systems including the components, equipment, design and operation problems as well as overcurrent protection, surge protection, insulation coordination and many other important aspects of medium voltage power systems.

Jim has developed this course based on over 35 years of extensive experience with industrial, commercial and utility power systems and standards development.  He is not just another trainer reading a script.   Jim’s training is based on his insider’s view from being very active with many different standards committees which provides him with the unique perspective, literally from the inside.  Coupled with his broad electrical power background,  he loves sharing his experience and insider’s view with others.

[See more about Jim Phillips]

One of the many topics that Jim discusses in this 2 day class is overcurrent relays and relay settings including determining the current transformer ratio, CT saturation calculations, determining overcurrent relay settings and calculating transformer differential relay settings.  This class also includes many other topics such as surge protection, insulation coordination and more.

Register 3 People and the 4th is FREE!


DAY ONE

INTRODUCTION
Medium Voltage Systems, Voltage Ranges, Special Considerations
Failure Modes, Voltage Stress, Thermal Stress

MEDIUM VOLTAGE SAFETY
Electrocution at Low vs. Medium Voltage, Arc Flash Issues, Qualified Person,
Approach Boundaries

TYPES OF MEDIUM VOLTAGE SYSTEMS
Utility and Industrial One lines, Reliability Requirements, Overhead and Underground
Systems, Regulated Systems

MEDIUM VOLTAGE CABLE
Copper vs. Aluminum Design, Voltage Ratings
Insulation Ratings, 100%, 133%, 173% Insulation Levels, Shielding Requirements,
Electric Fields, Terminating MV Conductors, Orientation of Overhead Lines

MEDIUM VOLTAGE SUBSTATION TRANSFORMERS
Core and Coil Design, Aluminum and Copper Windings, Transformer Characteristics, Tank Construction, Loss Evaluation, Loss Calculations, Efficiency Calculations, Regulation

SPOT NETWORKS
Spot Network Design, Network Protectors, Network Protector Relay Operation, Directional Protection Requirements, Large Network Fault Currents

PARTIAL DISCHARGE
Corona, Surface Tracking, Voltage Stress, Sensing Partial Discharge, Component Failure

GROUNDING MEDIUM VOLTAGE SYSTEMS
Resistance Grounding, Solid Grounding, Ungrounded Delta Charging Current, Coefficient of Grounding Calculations, Effect of Ground Faults on Delta Voltage, Sizing Grounding Resistors, High Resistance Grounding vs. Low Resistance Grounding

OVERVIEW OF SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
Positive, Negative and Zero Sequence Impedance, Per Unit
Line-to-Ground Short Circuit Calculations

SURGE PROTECTION
Lightning and Switching Surges, Classes of Surge Arresters, Insulation Basic Impulse Level BIL ,  Basic Impluse Switching Insulation Level (BSL) Front of Wave (FOW), MCOV Ratings – (Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage) TOV – (Maximum Temporary Over Voltage Capability), Protective Characteristics, Surge Arrester Selection, Energy Capability, Effect of Grounding on Arrester Selection, Insulation Coordination, Protective Ratio and Protective Margin Calculations.

DAY TWO

CURRENT TRANSFORMER APPLICATIONS
Ratings, Selection Process, Accuracy, Saturation, Excitation Curves, Burden,
Calculation, Momentary Ratings, CT Saturation Calculations for Performance

MEDIUM VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS
Vacuum, Air, Oil, SF6 Designs, Symmetrical Interrupting Rating, K-Rated
Voltage Factor, Close and Latch Capability

OVERCURRENT RELAYS
Protective Relay Concepts, Selective Coordination Principles, ANSI Device Numbers i.e. 50, 51, 67, 32, 27, etc.  Amp Tap, Time Dial, Instantaneous Setting   Relay Setting Calculations, Digital Relays, Electromechanical Relays, Time Margins, Coordination Between Devices

RECLOSERS
Application on Feeder Circuits, Recloser Settings, Continuous Current and Interrupting Ratings

MEDIUM VOLTAGE FUSES
Medium Voltage Switches, Load Rating, Expulsion vs. Current Limiting Fuse Characteristics, E and R Rated Fuses, Fuse Cutouts, ANSI Time Current Points

MEDIUM VOLTAGE PROTECTION CONCEPTS
Medium Voltage Protection, Relays, Circuit Breakers, R and E rated Fuses,
Short Circuit vs. Overcurrent Protection

DISTRIBUTION FEEDER PROTECTION
Protection with Fuses – 300%, Overcurrent Protection with Relays – 600%,
Short Circuit Damage Characteristics, Relay “Reach” for End of Line Faults

ROTATING MACHINERY PROTECTION
Protection Requirements, Generator Decrement Curves, Thermal Damage Curves, Reactive,
Capability Curves, Differential Protection, Protection Example Calculations

MEDIUM VOLTAGE MOTOR CONTROLLERS
Protection Requirements, Motor Management Relays, Circuit Breaker Protection, Relaying, Class R Rated Fuses

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
ANSI C57 Transformer Thru Fault Curves, Impact of Transformer Winding Configuration,
Overview of Differential Protection, Inrush and Harmonic Restraint, Hands On Differential Relay Setting Calculation Problems and Calculation Worksheets.


Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

 

2015 May 8 8:00 am Short Circuit Analysis

Overview

Conference2This course was developed and is taught by Jim Phillips, P.E. Learn how to perform short circuit analysis / calculations and equipment adequacy evaluations. Understand the importance of X/R ratios, symmetrical vs. asymmetrical faults and how series ratings work. Many calculation examples are used to illustrate how to perform an analysis. The methods are based on the IEEE Red and Violet books. This class can be paired with the Protective Device Coordination Class for 2 days of training. This class is loaded with many in class examples and problems for a hands on learning experience.

Jim has developed this course based on over 30 years of extensive experience with industrial, commercial and utility power systems. Even instructors from other training companies have attended Jim’s classes to see how it’s done. You will learn how to conduct a short circuit study.

[About Jim Phillips]


What You Will Receive

 Training manual
Jim’s short circuit calculation worksheets
 Access to Technical articles
Many calculation examples and problems
 8 hours of Continuing Education Credit


Have This Class On-Site at Your Location

You can also have this class conducted on-site at your location.  Contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883 to see about having Jim teach this class to your staff at your company’s facilities.  Contact us for your custom on-site training proposal.


SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

DSC00377Devices

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS – INTRODUCTION
Short Circuit Study Requirements, NEC® 110.9 and 110.10, Interrupting and Withstand Ratings, Data Requirements, Available Utility Short Circuit Current, Conductor Impedance, Source Impedance, X/R Ratio, Per Phase Calculations, Thevenin Equivalent, Impedance

CONDUCTOR IMPEDANCE AND SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
Determining the Source Impedance, Calculating the Conductor Impedance, Conductor Impedance Tables, Conductor Calculation Worksheets.  In Class Problems – Short Circuit Calculations with Conductor Impedance

TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE AND SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
Transformer Testing and Percent Impedance, X/R Ratio,  Using Percent Impedance for Short Circuit Calculations,  Determining the Source Impedance in Percent, Infinite Bus Calculations, Transformer Calculation Worksheets.  In Class Problems – Short Circuit Calculations with Transformer Impedance

MOTOR CONTRIBUTION
Theory of Motor Short Circuit Contribution, Sub-Transient Reactance, Xd”, Effect of Motor Contribution on Short Circuit Current, Multipliers for Motor Contribution.  In Class Problems – Consideration of Motor Contribution

DEVICE INTERRUPTING RATINGS
Circuit Breaker and Fuse Interrupting Ratings, UL and ANSI Testing Methods, Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Short Circuit Current, Effect of X/R Ratio on Interrupting Ratings, Multiplying Factors when the X/R and Asymmetry are Too Large

SERIES RATINGS
Development of Series Ratings, Proper Application of Series Ratings, Dynamic Impedance, Fully Rated vs. Series Rated, Current Limitation, Let Thru Current, U.L. Tests

CASE PROBLEM
Short Circuit Study of Small Industrial System.  Calculations Include Source, Conductor and Transformer Impedance, Motor Contribution and Protective Device Adequacy Evaluation

 


Attend This Class to See How To:Power Distribution 1

 Perform Short Circuit Calculations
 Determine the Adequacy of Equipment
 Understand the Importance of Utility Data
 Understand why is the X/R ratio Important with Asymmetry
 Correctly Develop Series Ratings
 Calculate Short Circuit Motor Contribution
 Understand a Transformer’s Importance with Short Circuit Current


Receive Answers to These Questions and More

 What questions do I ask the utility company?
 What is the X/R ratio?
How does the X/R ratio effect a device’s interrupting rating?
What is motor contribution?
How do I calculate motor contribution on new systems with an undefined load?
• Is a short circuit study legally required?
What kind of data is required for the short circuit studies?
What if I can’t find all of the data, what assumptions can I make?
Why is the L/E ratio tm so important?
• How do current limiting fuses operate?
 What is a symmetrical current vs. asymmetrical current?
 How do I properly apply series ratings?


Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

 

2015 May 7 8:30 am Electrical Power System Engineering

Electrical Power System Engineering

Register 3 People and the 4th is FREE!

Conference2This course by Jim Phillips, P.E. has become the industry standard that defines the “Crash Course” in electrical power systems. People from all seven continents (Antarctica included) have attended this week long program that combines five of Jim’s most popular classes including Power System Design 1 & 2, Short Circuit Analysis, Coordination Studies and Power Factor and Power System Harmonic Analysis.  This class is loaded with many in class examples and problems for a hands on learning experience.

Jim has developed this course based on over 35 years of extensive experience with industrial, commercial and utility power systems and standards development.  He is not just another trainer reading a script.   Jim’s training is based on his insider’s view from being very active with many different standards committees which provides him with the unique perspective, literally from the inside.  Coupled with his broad electrical power background,  he loves sharing his experience and insider’s view with others.  Even instructors from other training companies have attended Jim’s classes to see how it’s done. You will learn power system design as well as conduct a short circuit and coordination study and design harmonic filters.

This class also makes a great Professional Engineering Exam Review!

[About Jim Phillips]


What You Will Receive

 Training manuals of 5 modules containing almost 500 pages
Jim’s short circuit calculation worksheets
Harmonic analysis and design worksheets
Access to Technical articles
Many calculation examples and problems
32 hours of Continuing Education Credit


Have This Class On-Site at Your Location

You can also have this class conducted on-site at your location.  Contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883 to see about having Jim teach this class to your staff at your company’s facilities.  Contact us for your custom on-site training proposal.


 

COURSE 1 – POWER SYSTEM DESIGN – I

Power Distribution 1 DSC01751

INTRODUCTION
Introduction to Electrical Power System Design, Electrical Safety Considerations, Electrical Codes and Standards, Economic Considerations of Design

TYPES OF SYSTEM DESIGNS
Radial Distribution Systems, Networks, Double Ended Substation, Primary Selective Systems, Loop System

VOLTAGE SELECTION
Selecting the Appropriate Voltage, 120/240V, 208Y/120V, 480Y/277V Systems, Medium Voltage Selection, Delta vs. Wye Configurations, Voltage Drop Calculations

LOAD CALCULATIONS
General Lighting Load Calculations, Appliance Loads, Receptacles Load Calculations, National Electrical Code Article 220 Requirements, VA per Square ft., Continuous vs. Non-Continuous, Demand Factors, Panel Schedules

CONDUCTORS
Conductor Selection, Conduit Sizing, Insulation Type, Correction Factors, Temperature Considerations, Neutral and Ground Conductors

PANELBOARDS
Panelboard Sizing and Ratings, 80 percent vs. 100 percent ratings, Series Rated vs. Fully Rated Panels.

SWITCHBOARDS
Bus Ratings, Breaker and Fuse Selection, Bus Bracing, AIC, Layout, Series Ratings, Bus Structure, 6 Disconnect Rule

LIGHTING DESIGN
Zonal Cavity Lighting Calculations, Lighting Layout

CASE PROBLEM
Small Industrial Switchboard Circuit Design

COURSE 2 – POWER SYSTEM DESIGN – II

Pad Mount Transformermcc2

TRANSFORMERS
Types of Transformers, Dry-Type, Liquid Filled, Cast Coil Designs, Temperation Ratings, Fan Cooling, Insulation Characteristics, Percent Impedance,  K Factor, Transformer Protection Based on NEC® Article 450, Inrush Current, In Class Problems, Sizing and Protecting Transformers

MOTOR CIRCUITS
NEC® Article 430 Requirements, Motor Nameplate Full Load Amps vs. NEC Table’s Full Load Amps, Locked Rotor and Overload Protection, Insulation Class / Service Factor, Motor Tables, Sizing of Feeders, Protection, Motor Short Circuit Protection, In Class Problems – Designing Motor Circuits

GROUNDING
Grounding Electrode System Requirements, Equipment Grounding Conductor Selection, Separately Derived Systems, NEC® Article 250, Solidly Ground and Un-Grounded Systems, High Resistance Grounding, Ground, Ground Loops and Power Quality Issues

HAZARDOUS/CLASSIFIED LOCATIONS
Class I, II, and III, Divisions and Groups, Explosion Proof Equipment, Intrinsically Safe Circuits

LIGHTNING PROTECTION
Concept of Lightning Protection, Air Terminals, Conductors, NFPA 780 Requirements

GENERATORS
Emergency Vs. Standby, Selection of Generator and Prime Mover, Gasoline, Gas (LP/Natural), Diesel Driven, Design Considerations, Generator Loads

AUTOMATIC TRANSFER SWITCHES
Size and Ratings of Transfer Switches, 3 Pole vs. 4 Pole, Protection of the ATS

UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES
UPS Types and Operation, Heat Loss, Compatibility with Generators

CASE PROBLEM
Designing a Transformer Circuit for an Industrial Facility

COURSE 3 – SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

DSC00377 Devices

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS – INTRODUCTION
Short Circuit Study Requirements, NEC® 110.9 and 110.10, Interrupting and Withstand Ratings, Data Requirements, Available Utility Short Circuit Current, Conductor Impedance, Source Impedance, X/R Ratio, Per Phase Calculations, Thevenin Equivalent, Impedance

CONDUCTOR IMPEDANCE AND SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
Determining the Source Impedance, Calculating the Conductor Impedance, Conductor Impedance Tables, Conductor Calculation Worksheets.  In Class Problems – Short Circuit Calculations with Conductor Impedance

TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCE AND SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
Transformer Testing and Percent Impedance, X/R Ratio,  Using Percent Impedance for Short Circuit Calculations,  Determining the Source Impedance in Percent, Infinite Bus Calculations, Transformer Calculation Worksheets.  In Class Problems – Short Circuit Calculations with Transformer Impedance

MOTOR CONTRIBUTION
Theory of Motor Short Circuit Contribution, Sub-Transient Reactance, Xd”, Effect of Motor Contribution on Short Circuit Current, Multipliers for Motor Contribution.  In Class Problems – Consideration of Motor Contribution

DEVICE INTERRUPTING RATINGS
Circuit Breaker and Fuse Interrupting Ratings, UL and ANSI Testing Methods, Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Short Circuit Current, Effect of X/R Ratio on Interrupting Ratings, Multiplying Factors when the X/R and Asymmetry are Too Large

SERIES RATINGS
Development of Series Ratings, Proper Application of Series Ratings, Dynamic Impedance, Fully Rated vs. Series Rated, Current Limitation, Let Thru Current, U.L. Tests

CASE PROBLEM
Short Circuit Study of Small Industrial System.  Calculations Include Source, Conductor and Transformer Impedance, Motor Contribution and Protective Device Adequacy Evaluation

COURSE 4 – COORDINATION STUDIES

DSC00150 Relays 

COORDINATION STUDY REQUIREMENTS
Selective Coordination Basics, Understanding Time Current Curves (TCC), Data Requirements, Device Settings, Graph Scale Selection, Protection vs. Selectivity and Reliability, Compromises in Coordinating Devices in Series

COORDINATION OF MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKERS
Molded Case Circuit Breaker Time Current Curves, Overload Region of TCC, Instantaneous Region, Fixed vs. Adjustable Instantaneous, Determining the Setting of the Instantaneous, Drawing Time Current Curves.  In Class Problem – Drawing Molded Case Circuit Breaker Time Current Curves, Selecting Settings for Optimal Selective Coordination

COORDINATION OF FUSES
Time Current Curves of Fuses, Current Limiting vs. Non Current Limiting Fuse Curves, Minimum Melting and Total Clearing Curves, Coordinating Two Sets of Current Limiting Fuses with Selectivity Tables, Coordinating I2T Let-Thru Energy.  In Class Problems – Coordinating Fuses with Each Other and Coordinating Fuses with Circuit Breakers

SOLID STATE / ELECTRONIC TRIP BREAKERS
Long Time, Short Time, Instantaneous Settings, I2T Settings, Coordination of Electronic Trip Circuit Breakers, Eliminating Instantaneous for Coordination, NEC® Requirements for High Speed Fault Clearing for Reducing the Hazard From an Arc Flash.

GROUND FAULT RELAYS
Residually Connected Ground Fault Schemes, Zero Sequence Ground Fault Relaying, Settings, NEC® Requirements for Ground Fault Protection of Services, Feeders and Equipment, Nuisance Tripping, Setting Ground Fault Devices

OVERCURRENT RELAYS
Protective Relay Operation, Amp Tap Setting, Time Dial Operation and Setting, Instantaneous Function, Current Transformers, Necessary Protective Relay Time Margins for Selective Coordination, Setting Selection, Protective Relay Time Current Curves, Curve Shape – Inverse, Very Inverse, Extremely Inverse.  In Class Problems – Setting Overcurrent Relays and Drawing Relay Time Current Curves

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
NEC® Article 450 Requirements, Magnetizing Inrush Current, Using ANSI C57 Thru Fault Curves for Transformer Protection, Adjustments to the Thru Fault Curves Based on Transformer Winding Configurations, Setting Overcurrent Relays for Protecting a Transformer Based on ANSI C57

CASE PROBLEM
Coordination Study of Small Industrial Plant, Determining Optimal Device Settings and Drawing Time Current Curves for Multiple Devices in Series.

COURSE 5 – POWER FACTOR AND HARMONIC ANALYSISDSC02142 Distribution Capacitor

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
Concept of Power Factor, kW, kVA, kvar and Power Factor, Leading and Lagging Power Factor, Current Flow, Inductive Loads, Power Factor and Vector Analysis

POWER FACTOR CALCULATIONS
Determining System Var Requirements, Sizing the Power Factor Correction Capacitor Bank, Determining The Number of Capacitor Switching Steps, Location of the Capacitors.  In Class Problem – Calculating the Size of the Power Factor Correction Capacitor Bank

UTILITY RATE STRUCTURE
Types of Utility Rate Structures, Peak Demand Metering, kVA and kW Demand Billing Rates and Power Factor Based Rates, “Creative” Rates after Deregulation.  In Class Problem – Power Factor Economic/Payback Calculations

HARMONICS
Concept of Power System Harmonics, Harmonic Frequency Spectrum, Sources of Power System Harmonics, Non-Linear Loads, Harmonic Current Flow, Current Distortion and Harmonics, Graphical/Fourier Analysis of Current Wave Form.  In Class Problem – Calculating the Harmonic Content of an Adjustable Speed Drive

HARMONIC RELATED PROBLEMS
Harmonics and Capacitor Failure, Capacitor Fuse Nuisance Interruptions, Equipment Over-Heating, Circuit Breaker Mis-Operation, Metering Errors, Transformer Over-Heating and K-Factor Transformers

RESONANCE
Determining Parallel and Series Resonance, Effect of the Equivalent Source Impedance and Resonance, Effect of Capacitor Size, Impact of Resonance on the Power System, Impedance vs. Frequency Scans, Characteristics of Resonance Problems.   In Class Problems – Power System Resonance Calculations

EVALUATING HARMONICS
Resonance Calculations, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Calculations, Effect of Parallel Resonance on THD, Effect of Source Strength and Load Types.  In Class Problems – Resonance and Total Harmonic Distortion Calculations

IEEE 519
Voltage and Current Distortion Limits, Point of Common Coupling, Enforcement, Factoring the Source Strength into the Harmonic Limits, Ratio of Harmonic Current to Load Current

THIRD HARMONICS
Switched Mode Power Supplies, 3rd Harmonics and Overloading Neutral Conductors, Oversizing Neutral Conductors, The use of Delta-Wye K-Factor Transformers, Shared Neutrals, Design Requirements to Accommodate Third Harmonic Loads

CORRECTION OF HARMONIC PROBLEMS
Power Factor Correction Capacitor Bank Operating Restrictions, Over sizing Neutral Conductors, Harmonic Filter Design, De-tuning Capacitor Banks.  In Class Problem – Designing a 5th Harmonic Filter

CASE PROBLEM
Design of a 5th Harmonic Filter Tuned to the 4.7th for an Industrial Plant

Final Discussion

Adjourn


Attend This Class to See How To:Power Distribution 1

Design electrical power systems more efficiently
Select and size power system components
Conduct short circuit studies
Perform coordination studies and draw time current curves
Calculate overcurrent device settings
Evaluate harmonics and design harmonic filters
Understand power system design and analysis

 


Receive Answers to These Questions and More

How do I select conductors for loads?
What are demand factors?
Why is there more to design than the NEC®?
Why do I contact the electric utility early in the project?
What questions do I ask the utility company?
What does voltage drop do to my sensitive loads?
Why are harmonics and generators not always compatible?
Why is ANSI C57 a better protection method for transformers than the NEC®?
What is the X/R ratio?
How does the X/R ratio effect a device’s interrupting rating?
What is motor contribution?
How do I calculate motor contribution on new systems with an undefined load?
Is a 150 degree C rise or 80 degree C rise better for transformers?
Is a short circuit study legally required?
What kind of data is required for the short circuit and coordination studies?
What if I can’t find all of the data, what assumptions can I make?
Why is the L/E ratio tm so important?
How do you draw time-current curves?
How do you selectively coordinate overcurrent devices?
How do current limiting fuses operate?
How do you determine circuit breaker settings?
What are the amp tap, time dial and instantaneous settings on a relay?
What is a symmetrical current vs. asymmetrical current?
What logic should be used for determining device settings?
How do I properly apply series ratings?
What are harmonics and do I need to worry about them?
How can I predict if harmonics will cause a problem?
How do I interpret IEEE 519 and what is the point of common coupling?
Why do I sometimes need to oversize neutrals for 3rd harmonics but not others?
When and how do I design a harmonic filter


Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

2015 May 7 8:00 am Protective Relaying – Part 2

Protective Relaying – Part 1 and Part 2

Switchgear with Protective RelaysJim Phillips, P.E. will show you how to work with protective relays and determine optimal settings for protection and coordination in this first part of a two part class.  The Class begins with the basics of overcurrent relays and progresses in Part 2 with more advanced topics including differential protection, generator  protection, transformer protection and more.  Coordination involving   network systems where protective devices do not see the same  current for the same event will also be addressed.

The Class includes many of the more common relay functions such as overcurrent, synch check, reverse power, differential protection schemes, frequency as well as many other relay functions and schemes.  Participants will learn advanced topics such as how to construct protective relay time current curves and manually construct the ANSI C57 thru fault curves.

[See more about Jim Phillips]


What You WILL Receive With this Protective Relay Class:

  • Training manual containing over 250 pages for both days/parts.
  • Many relay setting example problems
  • Current transformer saturation worksheets
  • Access to Technical articles
  • Transformer Thur-Fault Protection
  • 16 hours of Continuing Education Credit for both days/parts.  8 hours for each day/part

Day One – Protective Relaying

INTRODUCTION
Overcurrent Protection Concepts, Relay Coordination Data Requirements, Selective
Coordination Principles, Zones of Protection, Minimizing Outages / Maximizing Reliability

SHORT CIRCUIT CONSIDERATIONS
Three Phase and Line-to-Ground Faults, Short Circuit Calculations, Effect of Current Magnitude on Relay Settings, Relay Reach to End of Line

OVERCURRENT RELAY PROTECTION SCHEMES
Time Current Graphs, Induction Disk Relay, Solid State / Digital Relays, Current Transformer Selection, Circuit Breaker, ANSI Protective Device Numbers

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
Polarity Markings, Current Transformer Saturation, Excitation Curves, Saturation Calculation Worksheets and Example Problems, Burden, CT Accuracy Class, CT Size vs. Saturation

OVERCURRENT RELAYS
Amp Tap Settings, Time Dial Settings, Instantaneous Settings, Relay Time Margins, Safety Margins, Digital Relays, Electro-Mechanical Induction Disk Over Travel, Drawing Time Current Curves

COORDINATION OF RELAYS
Curve Shapes and Characteristics, Inverse, Very Inverse, Extremely Inverse Characteristics, Coordinating Relays with Other Relays, Determining Optimal Settings, Relay Setting Problems

RELAYS FOR CONDUCTOR PROTECTION
National Electrical Code Requirements, Conductor Damage Curves, Determining Relays Settings for Conductor Protection, Short Circuit Protection

GROUND FAULT PROTECTION RELAYS
Residually Connected Relay Scheme, Zero Sequence Relay Schemes, Effect of Delta Wye Transformer Connection on Coordinating Ground Fault Relays

CASE PROBLEM
Coordinating Protective Relays


Day Two – Protective Relaying

INTRODUCTION
Types of Protection Schemes, Protecting Equipment, Design Criteria, Protection Standards and Defining Protection Requirements, Necessary Data for Determining Appropriate Settings

DIRECTIONAL RELAYS
Relay Operating Principles, Use of Directional Relays, Polarizing Input, Use in Network Systems

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION WITH RELAYS
NEC Article 450, Magnetic Inrush Current, ANSI C57 Thru Fault Curve, ANSI Transformer Protection Requirements, Adjustments for Transformer Winding Configuration, Performing Engineering Calculations and Constructing ANSI C57 Thru Fault Curves for Transformer Protection

DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION CONCEPTS
Overcurrent Differential Relays, Percentage Differential Relays, Bus Differential Relays, Current Transformer Selection, Saturation Issues, Current Transformer Polarity

TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
Differential Protection, Percentage Differential Protection, Slope Settings, Delta-Wye Phase Shift Adjustments, Sizing Current Transformers to Compensate for Delta Connected Current Transformers

MOTOR PROTECTION
Motor Protection Requirements, Motor Starting Characteristics, Motor Short Circuit Protection, Overload Protection, Motor Safe Stall Time

LOAD SHEDDING
Local Generation, Loss of Utility, Back Feeding the Utility, Frequency Relays, Reverse Power Relays

GENERATOR PROTECTION
Protection Requirements, 51V Relays, Generator Sub Transient Reactance, Short Circuit Decrement Curves, Synch Check Relay, Frequency, Reverse Power and Other Relay Functions, Generator Protective Schemes and Settings

Case Problem
Transformer Protection – Creating ANSI C57 Thru Fault Curves and Setting Protective Relays


Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

2015 May 7 8:00 am Protective Relaying

Protective Relaying – Part 1 and Part 2

Switchgear with Protective RelaysJim Phillips, P.E. will show you how to work with protective relays and determine optimal settings for protection and coordination in this first part of a two part class.  The Class begins with the basics of overcurrent relays and progresses in Part 2 with more advanced topics including differential protection, generator  protection, transformer protection and more.  Coordination involving   network systems where protective devices do not see the same  current for the same event will also be addressed.

The Class includes many of the more common relay functions such as overcurrent, synch check, reverse power, differential protection schemes, frequency as well as many other relay functions and schemes.  Participants will learn advanced topics such as how to construct protective relay time current curves and manually construct the ANSI C57 thru fault curves.

[See more about Jim Phillips]


What You WILL Receive With this Protective Relay Class:

  • Training manual containing over 250 pages for both days/parts.
  • Many relay setting example problems
  • Current transformer saturation worksheets
  • Access to Technical articles
  • Transformer Thur-Fault Protection
  • 16 hours of Continuing Education Credit for both days/parts.  8 hours for each day/part

Day One – Protective Relaying

INTRODUCTION
Overcurrent Protection Concepts, Relay Coordination Data Requirements, Selective
Coordination Principles, Zones of Protection, Minimizing Outages / Maximizing Reliability

SHORT CIRCUIT CONSIDERATIONS
Three Phase and Line-to-Ground Faults, Short Circuit Calculations, Effect of Current Magnitude on Relay Settings, Relay Reach to End of Line

OVERCURRENT RELAY PROTECTION SCHEMES
Time Current Graphs, Induction Disk Relay, Solid State / Digital Relays, Current Transformer Selection, Circuit Breaker, ANSI Protective Device Numbers

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
Polarity Markings, Current Transformer Saturation, Excitation Curves, Saturation Calculation Worksheets and Example Problems, Burden, CT Accuracy Class, CT Size vs. Saturation

OVERCURRENT RELAYS
Amp Tap Settings, Time Dial Settings, Instantaneous Settings, Relay Time Margins, Safety Margins, Digital Relays, Electro-Mechanical Induction Disk Over Travel, Drawing Time Current Curves

COORDINATION OF RELAYS
Curve Shapes and Characteristics, Inverse, Very Inverse, Extremely Inverse Characteristics, Coordinating Relays with Other Relays, Determining Optimal Settings, Relay Setting Problems

RELAYS FOR CONDUCTOR PROTECTION
National Electrical Code Requirements, Conductor Damage Curves, Determining Relays Settings for Conductor Protection, Short Circuit Protection

GROUND FAULT PROTECTION RELAYS
Residually Connected Relay Scheme, Zero Sequence Relay Schemes, Effect of Delta Wye Transformer Connection on Coordinating Ground Fault Relays

CASE PROBLEM
Coordinating Protective Relays


Day Two – Protective Relaying

INTRODUCTION
Types of Protection Schemes, Protecting Equipment, Design Criteria, Protection Standards and Defining Protection Requirements, Necessary Data for Determining Appropriate Settings

DIRECTIONAL RELAYS
Relay Operating Principles, Use of Directional Relays, Polarizing Input, Use in Network Systems

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION WITH RELAYS
NEC Article 450, Magnetic Inrush Current, ANSI C57 Thru Fault Curve, ANSI Transformer Protection Requirements, Adjustments for Transformer Winding Configuration, Performing Engineering Calculations and Constructing ANSI C57 Thru Fault Curves for Transformer Protection

DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION CONCEPTS
Overcurrent Differential Relays, Percentage Differential Relays, Bus Differential Relays, Current Transformer Selection, Saturation Issues, Current Transformer Polarity

TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
Differential Protection, Percentage Differential Protection, Slope Settings, Delta-Wye Phase Shift Adjustments, Sizing Current Transformers to Compensate for Delta Connected Current Transformers

MOTOR PROTECTION
Motor Protection Requirements, Motor Starting Characteristics, Motor Short Circuit Protection, Overload Protection, Motor Safe Stall Time

LOAD SHEDDING
Local Generation, Loss of Utility, Back Feeding the Utility, Frequency Relays, Reverse Power Relays

GENERATOR PROTECTION
Protection Requirements, 51V Relays, Generator Sub Transient Reactance, Short Circuit Decrement Curves, Synch Check Relay, Frequency, Reverse Power and Other Relay Functions, Generator Protective Schemes and Settings

Case Problem
Transformer Protection – Creating ANSI C57 Thru Fault Curves and Setting Protective Relays


Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

2015 May 7 8:00 am Protective Device Coordination Analysis

Synopsis
Protective Device Coordination Analysis is designed to show you how to use time current curves and perform coordination studies with breakers, relays and fuses. The program provides an explanation of how to maximize reliability by developing a properly coordinated power distribution system.

Description

COORDINATION STUDIES
Selective Coordination Basics, Time Current Curves, Data
Requirements, Device Settings, Log Log Graph, Scale

COORDINATION OF DEVICES
Molded Case Circuit Breaker Coordination, Adjustable
Instantaneous Settings, Coordination of Multiple Devices

SOLID STATE / ELECTRONIC TRIP DEVICES
Long Time, Short Time, Instantaneous Settings, I2T Settings,
Coordination of Devices, No Instantaneous

GROUND FAULT DEVICES
Residually Connected Schemes, Zero Sequence Relaying,
Setting of Devices, Nuisance Tripping, Ground Fault
Requirement for Services and Feeders, Coordination
Requirements for Health Care Facilities

OVERCURRENT RELAYS
Amp Tap, Time Dial, Instantaneous, Current Transformers,
Time Margins, Setting Selection, Time Current Curves

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
NEC Requirements, Inrush, ANSI C57 Thru Fault Curves,
Adjustments to Thru Fault Curves Based on Winding
Configurations, Delta-Wye and Delta Delta

CASE PROBLEM
Coordination Study of Small Industrial System

2015 May 7 8:00 am Power System Analysis – Symmetrical Components

Synopsis A continuation of part one, this class builds upon the per unit system and takes you to the next level with symmetrical components and unbalanced power system calculations. Learn how to more easily use positive, negative and zero sequence components and draw zero sequence diagrams. Description CONDUCTOR MODELING Impedance Data, Geometric Mean Radius, Geometric …

2015 May 7 8:00 am Power System Analysis – Per Unit

Synopsis Very few universities teach the Power System Analysis – Per Unit anymore but it is still a fundamental concept for electric power systems. This class teaches you the basics of electric power system analysis including the per unit system. Description POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS CONCEPTS RLC Circuits, Series, Parallel, Delta/Wye, Complex Impedances, Per Phase Analysis, Thevenin …

2015 May 7 8:00 am Power Factor and Harmonic Analysis

Synopsis This one day class takes you through the basics of power factor and harmonic analysis. How do you manage harmonics? Learn how to analyze harmonics, perform resonance calculations, understand IEEE 519, perform THD calculations and design harmonic filters. In addition, learn what to do about neutral harmonics which often require oversized neutrals and K …

2015 May 7 8:00 am Power Distribution Equipment – Part 2

Synopsis Power Distribution Equipment – Part 2 builds upon part one and includes the application and selection of circuit breakers, panelboards, switchboards, fuses, and relays. In addition, low & medium voltage switchgear and an introduction to short circuit and coordination studies are included. Description Switchboards and Panelboards Lighting and Appliance Panelboards, 80% vs. 100% Ratings, …

2015 May 7 8:00 am Power Distribution Equipment – Part 1

Synopsis: Power Distribution Equipment will help the student gain insight into the operation, selection and application of motors and variable frequency drives. You will also learn about transformer design, application and protection as well as transformer vault requirements. Description Introduction to Specification and Design Design Process, Specifications, Drawings Conductors for General Wiring Ampacity and Temperature …

2015 May 7 8:00 am National Electrical Code – 2017

2017 National Electrical Code 

Register 3 and the 4th is FREE!

Conference2This 2 Day class by Jim Phillips, P.E. covers the major articles found in the 2017 edition of the   National Electrical Code®.  You will not only learn what the various code articles  mean, but you will also learn how to correctly apply the code in the design and  installation of electric power systems.  Rather than just going through the  articles, you will also see how and why some of the articles were developed to gain a better understanding of their meaning. This class has many hands on examples and problems to solve that reinforce the concepts.  You will also learn   where some of the major exceptions and traps can be found.

Jim has developed this course based on over 30 years of extensive experience with industrial, commercial and utility power systems.

[About Jim Phillips]


What You Will Receive

  • Training manual containing almost 500 pages
  • Jim’s transformer calculation worksheets
  • A better understanding of new NEC changes
  • Tips on where common code mistakes are made
  • Many application examples and problems
  • 16 hours of Continuing Education Credit

Have This Class On-Site at Your Location

You can also have this class conducted on-site at your location.  Contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883 to see about having Jim teach this class to your staff at your company’s facilities.  Contact us for your custom on-site training proposal.


Description:
Article
90  Introduction

Chapter 1 General

100  Definitions

110  Requirements for Electrical Installation

Chapter 2 Wiring and Protection

210  Branch Circuits

215  Feeders

220  Branch, Feeder and Service Load Calculations

230  Services

240  Overcurrent Protection

250  Grounding and Bonding

Chapter 3 Wiring Methods and Materials

300  General Requirements for Wiring Methods and Materials

310  Conductors for General Wiring

320  Armored Cable -Type AC

324  Flat Conductor Cable:  Type FCC

326  Integrated Gas Spacer Cable: Type IGS

328  Medium Voltage Cable : Type MV

330  Metal Clad Cable: Type MC

334  Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable: Type NM, NMC, and NMS

338   Service-Entrance Cable: Type SE & USE

340  Underground Feeder and Branch Circuit   Cable: Type UF

342  Intermediate Metal Conduit: Type IMC

344  Rigid Metal Conduit : Type RMC

348  Flexible Metal Conduit: Type FMC

352  Rigid Polyvinyl Chloride Conduit: Type RNC

358  Electrical Metallic Tubing: Type EMT

362  Electrical Nonmetallic Tubing:  Type ENT

368  Busways

380  Multioutlet Assembly

392  Cable Trays

Chapter 4 Equipment for General Use

408  Switchboards, Switchgear and Panelboards

409  Industrial Control Panels

430  Motors, Motor Circuits and Controllers

440  Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Equipment

445  Generators

450  Transformers and Transformer Vaults   (Including Secondary Ties)

460  Capacitors

480  Storage Batteries

490  Equipment Over 1000 Volts, Nominal

Chapter 5 Special Occupancies

500  Hazardous (Classified Locations) – Class   I, II, and III, Divisions 1 and 2

501   Class I Locations

502  Class II Locations

503  Class III Locations

504  Intrinsically Safe Systems

517   Health Care Facilities

Chapter 6 Special Equipment

690  Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

691  Large-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) Electric Power Production Facility

694  Wind Electric Systems

695  Fire Pumps

Chapter 7 Special Conditions

700  Emergency Systems

701   Legally Required Standby Systems

702  Optional Standby Systems

706  Energy Storage Systems

710  Stand-Alone Systems

750  Energy Management Systems

Chapter 8 Communications Systems

Chapter 9 Tables

DESIGN EXAMPLES AND PROBLEMS


Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

2015 May 7 8:00 am Motor Design, Application and Analysis – Part 2

Synopsis This is the second part of a two day class designed to show you the fundamentals of motor operation and selection as well as how to design motor circuits. Learn the basics of variable frequency drive application. See how to model various motor parameters for determining a motor’s effect on the power distribution system …

2015 May 7 8:00 am Motor Design, Application and Analysis – Part 1

Synopsis This is the first part of a two day class designed to show you the fundamentals of motor operation and selection as well as how to design motor circuits. Learn the basics of variable frequency drive application. See how to model various motor parameters for determining a motor’s effect on the power distribution system …

2015 May 7 8:00 am Medium Voltage Power Systems – Part 2

Synopsis The backbone of many electric power systems is the medium voltage distribution system. Typically operating at voltages ranging from 2,400 to 34,500 Volts, voltage stress, corona, surges and protection of equipment all create unique challenges in design, equipment selection, operation and engineering. This 2nd class by Jim Phillips, P.E. takes you through the fundamentals …

2015 May 7 8:00 am Grounding, Bonding and Power Quality

Overview

Arc Flash Training Jim PhillipsNational Electrical Code Article 250 can be one of the most confusing parts of the NEC.  This class teaches you the fundamentals of the grounding and bonding requirements based on the National Electrical for electrical power systems.  Learn about the grounding electrode system, equipment grounding, bonding jumpers and more.  Understand why substations have ground grids to minimize touch and step potential.  See what the requirements are for separately derived systems and how incorrect grounding can lead to ground loops which can create hazardous conditions.  Many power quality issues can be traced to incorrect grounding.  IEEE Standard 1100 defines requirements for grounding and bonding sensitive electronic equipment.  Power Quality is a broad term used to describe the health of a power system’s voltage and current. Spikes, sags, surges, noise and other events can disrupt the operation of critical systems. Many power quality problems can be attributed to improper or incorrect grounding.

In this, Jim shows you the correct grounding and bonding requirements to minimize or reduce power quality problems as well as how to identify and solve common power quality problems.

Jim has developed this course based on over 30 years of extensive experience in conducting numerous power quality studies for industrial, commercial and utility power systems.

[About Jim Phillips]


What You Will Receive

 Training manual and course material
 A better understanding of grounding and bonding requirements
 Access to Technical articles
Many in class examples and problems
 8 hours of Continuing Education Credit


Have This Class On-Site at Your Location

You can also have this class conducted on-site at your location.  Contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883 to see about having Jim teach this class to your staff at your company’s facilities.  Contact us for your custom on-site training proposal.


GROUNDING, BONDING AND POWER QUALITY – INTRODUCTION

GROUNDING AND ELECTRICAL SAFETY
Shock and Electrocution Current
Physiological Response to Electric Current
Importance of Grounding and Electrical Safety

BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS
Effective Ground Fault Current Path
Equipment Grounding Conductor
Separately Derived System
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter
Grounding Electrode and Grounding Electrode Conductor

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE
Article 250 Overview – Parts and Sections
Scope of Article 250
Organization of Article 250

GROUNDING AND BONDING REQUIREMENTS
Electrical System Grounding
Grounding of Electrical Equipment
Bonding of Electrical Equipment
Bonding of Electrically Conductive Material
Effective Ground Fault Current Path
Ungrounded System Grounding and Bonding Requirements

TYPES OF SYSTEM GROUNDING
Solid and High Impedance Grounding
Grounded B Phase, Ground Detection

BONDING JUMPER
NEC Table 250.102(C)(1)
Main Bonding Jumper
System Bonding Jumper
Supply Side Bonding Jumper
Correlation Between Bonding Jumper and Fault Current

GROUNDING ELECTRODE SYSTEM
Ground Rod, Metal Water Pipe, Building Steel
Concrete Encased Electrode, Ground Ring
Electrolytic Ground, Ground Resistance Requirements

GROUNDING ELECTRODE CONDUCTOR
NEC Table 250.66
Sizing the Grounding Electrode Conductor
Supplemental Electrode Requirements
Exceptions to NEC Table 250.66
Grounding Multiple Overhead Services
Example Problems

EQUIPMENT GROUNDING AND BONDING
Purpose of Equipment Grounding
NEC Table 250.122
Conductor Selection vs. Overcurrent Device Size
Conduit as the Equipment Ground

SEPARATELY DERIVED SYSTEMS
Service Entrance, Transformers, UPS, Generators and
3 pole vs. 4 pole transfer switches and Ground Loops,
Serving Two or More Buildings from One Source

GROUNDING TO EARTH
Ground Resistance, Soil Resistivity, Ground
Resistance Measurements, Grounding and Corrosion
Ground Grids, Touch and Step Potential

SUBSTATION GROUNDING
Bonding of Fences and Other Metal Structures
Touch and Step Potential

SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT GROUNDING
IEEE Std. 1100 Recommended Practice for Powering
and Grounding Electronic Equipment,
Signal Reference Subsystem, Equipontential Grounding,
Separation of Loads, Lighting/Surge Grounding
Isolated Ground Design, Shielded Transformers

TELECOMMUNICATION GROUNDING AND BONDING
Telecom Main Grounding Bus bar (TMGB)
Telecom Bonding Backbone (TBB)
Telecom Bus Bar (TGB)
Telecom Closet and Equipment Room

POWER QUALITY ANALYSIS
Definition of Power Quality, Wave Characteristics
Sags/Swells, Grounding and Objectionable Current
Noise, EMI, Ground Loops

POWER QUALITY SITE SURVEY
Survey Objectives, Measurements, Inspection, Test
Equipment, Analysis

POWER QUALITY CASE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS


Attend This Class to See How To:Copy of Panel

 Comply with NEC Article 250
 Understand Grounding and Bonding
 Know the Grounding Electrode System Requirements
 Select Main, System and Supply Side Bonding Jumpers
 Understand Ground Loops and Power Quality
 Bond Separately Derived Systems
 Understand Substation Grounding and Step and Touch Potential


Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

2015 May 7 8:00 am Generator and UPS Applications – Part 2

Synopsis Power systems are facing a decrease in reliability yet mission critical systems must have 100% reliability. This class will show you how to properly size a UPS system, transfer switches selection, UPS heat loss, reliability, compatibility issues and more. Description Automatic Transfer Switches, Design, Operation, Emergency Rated, Short Circuit Withstand Ratings, Overcurrent Protection, 3 Pole Vs. …

2015 May 7 8:00 am Generator and UPS applications – Part 1

Synopsis
With electric utility deregulation and large scale blackouts emergency and standby power systems are more important than ever. This class covers the requirements of sizing, operation, protection and planning a generator installation. Included is how to analyze the effect of harmonic producing loads and motor starting on the generator operation.

Description

Codes and Standards
NFPA, NEMA, UL, ANSI, IEEE, Legally Required Systems

Types of Emergency and Standby Systems
Generators, Uninterruptible Power Supplies, Stored Energy Systems, Static Transfer Switches, Battery Systems

Planning the System
Emergency, Standby, Peak Shaving, Data Centers, Health Care, Legal Requirements, System Layout and Design

Sizing Generators
Load Characteristics and Calculations, Economic Analysis, Single-Step vs. Multi-Step, Motor Starting, Voltage and Frequency Concerns, Voltage Regulators

Concerns, Voltage Regulators

Protection Requirements
Short Circuit Current – Xd’’, Decrement Curves, Overcurrent Protection, Ground Fault, Under and Over Voltage, Under and Over Frequency Protection

Paralleling Requirements
Synchronizing Relays, Switchgear, Protection Requirements for Paralleling

Paralleling with the Utility

Environmental Requirements
Sound Levels and Regulations, Exhaust and Emissions, Fuel Types and Storage Requirements, Vibration, Cooling

2015 May 7 8:00 am NFPA 70E – 2018 -Awareness Training – 1/2 Day

Conference1This half day NFPA 70E awareness class provides an overview of electrical hazards such as electric shock, arc flash and others and covers the major topics found in NFPA 70E  including PPE selection and energized work permits.

The ½ day format allows employers to divide their staff into two groups with one group attending the morning session and the other group attending the afternoon session.  This class provides an excellent introduction to the electrical safety principles and practices.

Jim Phillips is not just another trainer reading a script.   Jim’s training is based on his insider’s view from holding many leadership positions for the development of various electrical safety standards coupled with his arc flash testing experience and broad electrical power background.  This provides him a unique perspective from the inside – a perspective he loves sharing with others. When asked questions about some topics, his explanations often run along the line of “Well, here’s what happened in the lab when we blew it up…”

Here is a sample of Jim’s involvement.

♦ Vice Chair – IEEE 1584 – IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Calculations
♦ International Chair – Geneva, Switzerland based,  IEC TC78 Live Working – 40+ global standards including many for arc flash.
♦ IEEE/NFPA Arc Flash Collaborative Research Project – Member of the Steering Committee
Author of Complete Guide to Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies

For a summary of the 2018 changes to NFPA 70E based on Jim’s article published in the multi-award winning Electrical Contractor Magazine, [CLICK HERE]

[Learn more about Jim Phillips]

Watch Jim explain why electrical equipment’s doors are not considered as protection from an arc flash.  One of his arc flash tests illustrates how doors can blow open during an arc flash.

INTRODUCTION

HUMAN EFFECTS
Physiological Effects, Tissue Damage, Internal Organ Damage, Burns, Fibrillation, “Curable” 2nd Degree Burn Requirements, Arc Blast Pressure, Sound Pressure, Incident Energy and 1.2 Calories/cm2

CODES AND STANDARDS
OSHA 29 CFR – Part 1910, Subpart S, NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2012 NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, IEEE Standard 1584™, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations, Legal Requirements, Liability

CATEGORIES OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
Electric Shock, Arc Flash, Arc Blast, Sound Pressure, Shrapnel, UV Light

QUALIFIED PERSON
NFPA 70E Definition, Trained and Knowledgeable Requirements, Identifies Hazards,

SHOCK RISK ASSESSMENT
Defining Limited and Restricted Approach Boundaries, Voltage Exposure, PPE

ELECTRICALLY SAFE WORKING CONDITION
Steps to Establish Condition, Methods Used, PPE to be Worn During Procedure

ARC FLASH RISK ASSESSMENT
Defining the Arc Flash Boundary and Protective Clothing Requirements

ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL WORK PERMIT
Purpose of Permit, Data Required, Approvals Process

ARC FLASH BOUNDARY
AFB Definition, Purpose, How to Determine, Work Within the Arc Flash Boundary

NFPA 70E PPE CATEGORIES
Defining the PPE Category using NFPA 70E Tables, PPE Category 1, 2, 3, 4 Requirements, Limitations of Tables, Using Calculations Instead, PPE Category Tables for DC arc flash

ARC RATED CLOTHING AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT SELECTION
Protective Clothing, Face Protection, Hand Protection, Foot Protection, Limitations

ARC FLASH WARNING LABELS
NFPA 70E Requirements, ANSI Z535, Signal Words, Information to List on the Label


Why is NFPA 70E Such an Important Standard?

According to OSHA 1910.132(d) The employer is responsible to assess the hazards in the work

Jim is setting up an arc flash test.

Jim is setting up an arc flash test.

place, select, have, and use the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and document the assessment. The use of NFPA 70E and other related industry consensus standards has been used to demonstrate whether an employer acted reasonably when there is a possible OSHA enforcement action taken.

So although NFPA 70E is not directly part of OSHA standards, it can be used as evidence of whether an employer acted reasonably in complying with OSHA standards and addressing “recognized hazards”.

There are more specific links within the OSHA standards as well. A typical example is found in 1910.335, Safeguards for personnel protection which requires: “(a)(1)(i) Employees working in areas where there are potential electrical hazards shall be provided with, and shall use, electrical protective equipment that is appropriate for the specific parts of the body to be protected and for the work to be performed.”

This regulation requires that employees must be properly protected from potential electrical hazards, by using adequate PPE, but it does not provide specific detail of what specific personal protective equipment is necessary to achieve the objective. NFPA 70E is used to define the specific details and requirements.


Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

 

2015 May 7 8:00 am NFPA 70E – 2018 – Qualified Worker Training – 2 Days

Conference1Receive 1.6 CEUs and a Certificate by completing this intensive 2 day  2018 NFPA 70E  Training Class by Jim Phillips.

The class covers the details of the 2018 Edition of  NFPA 70E  and OSHA requirements. Understand how to perform a shock and arc flash risk assessment, use energized electrical work permits, select PPE, understand arc flash labels, know what to do when working within the arc flash boundary and much more. Changes that have occurred with the 2018 Edition include greater emphasis on the Risk Assessment, Elimination of the 40 cal/cm2 Informational Note, a new exception where details such as the Arc Flash Boundary and PPE may not be required to be listed on the Arc Flash Label, New definitions for Electrical Safety Program, Condition of Maintenance, Working Distance and many revised definitions, Major re-organizations of Article 120 and many other revisions, additions and changes!

Jim Phillips is not just another trainer reading a script.   Jim’s training is based on his insider’s view from holding many leadership positions for the development of various electrical safety standards coupled with his arc flash testing experience and broad electrical power background.  This provides him a unique perspective from the inside – a perspective he loves sharing with others. When asked questions about some topics, his explanations often run along the line of “Well, here’s what happened in the lab when we blew it up…”

Here is a sample of Jim’s involvement.

Vice Chair – IEEE 1584 – IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Calculations
International Chair – Geneva, Switzerland based,  IEC TC78 Live Working – 40+ global standards including many for arc flash.
IEEE/NFPA Arc Flash Collaborative Research Project – Member of the Steering Committee
Author of Complete Guide to Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies

For a summary of the 2018 changes to NFPA 70E based on Jim’s article published in the multi-award winning Electrical Contractor Magazine, [CLICK HERE]

[Learn more about Jim Phillips]

Watch Jim explain why electrical equipment’s doors are not considered as protection from an arc flash.  One of his arc flash tests illustrates how doors can blow open during an arc flash.


INTRODUCTION TO 2018 NFPA 70E
Overview of the Global Changes, Significant Changes and the Revision Process

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS – HUMAN EFFECTS
Physiological Effects, Tissue Damage, Internal Organ Damage, Burns, Fibrillation, “Curable” Second Degree Burn Requirements, Arc Blast Pressure, Sound Pressure, Incident Energy and 1.2 Calories/cm2

ROLE OF OTHER CODES AND STANDARDS
OSHA 29 CFR – Part 1910, Subpart S, NFPA 70, National Electrical Code, 2018 NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, IEEE Standard 1584™, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations, Legal Requirements, Liability

CATEGORIES OF ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
Electric Shock, Arc Flash, Arc Blast, Sound Pressure, Shrapnel, UV Light

ARTICLE 90 – INTRODUCTION

90.1 Purpose
Purpose of Standard

90.2 Scope
Covered and Not Covered

90.3 Standard Arrangement
Overview of Standard’s Organization

90.4 Mandatory and Permissive Rules and Explanatory Material
Shall, Shall Not, Required, Permitted

90.5 Informative Annexes
Non-mandatory Information

ARTICLE 100 – DEFINITIONS

Major Definitions, Revisions, New Additions

ARTICLE 105 – APPLICATION OF SAFETY-RELATED WORK PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES

105.1 Scope
Electrical Safety Related Work Practices

105.2 Purpose
Intended to Provide for Employee Safety Relative to Electrical Hazards in the Work Place

105.3 Responsibility
Employee and Employer

105.4 Priority
Hazard Elimination

105.5 Organization
General overview of Chapter 1

ARTICLE 110 – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL SAFETY RELATED WORK PRACTICES

Discussion of Requirements Relocated from Other Articles

110.1 Electrical Safety Program
Overview of Changes, General, Inspection (New), Awareness and Self Discipline, Electrical Safety Program Principles, Controls and Procedures, Risk Assessment Procedure, Job Safety Planning and Job Briefing, Incident Investigation (New), Auditing

110.2 Electrical Training Requirements
Electrical Safety Training, Qualified Person, Lockout/Tagout Procedure Training, Emergency Response Training,

110.3 Host and Contract Employers’ Responsibilities
Host Employer Responsibilities, Contract Employer Responsibilities, Documentation

110.4 Test Instruments and Equipment
Testing, Rating, Design, Visual Inspection and Repair, Operation Verification

110.5 Portable Cord and Plug Connected Equipment
Handling and Storage, Grounding-Type Equipment, Visual Inspection and Repair of Portable Cord and Plug Connected Equipment and Flexible Cord Sets, Conductive Work Locations, Connecting Attachment Plugs, Manufacturer’s Instructions

110.6 Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter Protection
General, Maintenance and Construction, Outdoors, Testing Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter Protection Devices

ARTICLE 120 ESTABLISHING AN ELECTRICALLY SAFE WORK CONDITION

Overview of Reorganization of Article 120

120.1 Lockout/Tagout Program
General, Employer Responsibilities

120.2 Lockout/Tagout Principles
General, Employee Involvement, Lockout/Tagout Procedure, Control of Energy, Electrical Circuit Interlocks, Control Devices, Identification, Coordination, Forms of Energy Control

120.3 Lockout/Tagout Equipment
Lock Application, Lockout/Tagout Device, Lockout Device, Tagout Device

120.4 Lockout/Tagout Procedures
Planning, Locating Sources, Person in Charge, Simple Lockout/Tagout Procedure,Complex Lockout/Tagout Procedure, Elements of Control 

120.5 Process for Establishing and Verifying an Electrically Safe Work Condition
Verification Steps, Methods Used, PPE to be Worn During Procedure

ARTICLE 130 WORK INVOLVING ELECTRICAL HAZARDS

130.1 Electrically Safe Work Conditions
General – When an Electrically Safe Work Condition Must be Established

130.2 Electrically Safe Work Conditions
Energized Work, Energized Electrical Work Permit, Elements of Work Permit, Exemptions to Work Permit

130.3 Working While Exposed to Electrical Hazards
Safety Related Work Practice Requirements

130.4 Shock Risk Assessment
Reorganization Overview, General, Shock Risk Assessment, Additional Protective Measures, Shock PPE, Documentation, Shock Protection Boundaries, Limited Approach Boundary, Restricted Approach Boundary

130.5 Arc Flash Risk Assessment
Reorganization Overview, General, Estimate of Likelihood of Severity, Arc Flash Risk Assessment, Additional Protective Measures, Documentation, Arc Flash Boundary, Arc Flash PPE, Incident Energy Analysis Method, IEEE 1584, Effect of Arc Flash Duration, Time Current Curves and Protective Devices, Incident Energy and Distance,  Selection of Arc Rated Clothing And PPE. Equipment Labeling, Exception for No Detail on Labels (New)

130.6 Other Precautions for Personnel Activites
Alertness, Blind Reaching, Illumination, Conductive Articles Being Worn, Conductive Materials, Tools and Equipment Being Handled, Confined or Enclosed Work Spaces, Doors and Hinged Panels, Clear Spaces, Housekeeping Duties, Occasional Use of Flammable Materials, Anticipating Failure, Routine Opening and Closing of Circuit s, Reclosing Circuit After Protective Device Operation, Safety Interlocks

130.7 Personal and Other Protective Equipment
General, Care of Equipment, Personal Protective Equipment, Arc Rated Clothing,  ASTM Testing, Face Protection, Hand Protection, Foot Protection, Head, Face, Neck and Chin Protection, Eye and Hearing Protection, Deletion of PPE Standards from Mandatory Text (New)

130.8 Work Withing the Limited Approach Boundary or Arc Flash Boundary of Overhead Lines

CHAPTER 2 -SAFETY RELATED MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS

General, Protective Devices, Fuses and Circuit Breakers, Battery Rooms

CHAPTER 3 SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIAL EQUIPMENT

Electrolytic Cells, Use of Lasers, Power Electronic Equipment, Electrician Safety Authority

OVERVIEW OF INFORMATIVE ANNEXES

 

Why is NFPA 70E Such an Important Standard?

According to OSHA 1910.132(d) The employer is responsible to assess the hazards in the work

Jim is setting up an arc flash test.

Jim is setting up an arc flash test.

place, select, have, and use the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and document the assessment. The use of NFPA 70E and other related industry consensus standards has been used to demonstrate whether an employer acted reasonably when there is a possible OSHA enforcement action taken.

So although NFPA 70E is not directly part of OSHA standards, it can be used as evidence of whether an employer acted reasonably in complying with OSHA standards and addressing “recognized hazards”.

There are more specific links within the OSHA standards as well. A typical example is found in 1910.335, Safeguards for personnel protection which requires: “(a)(1)(i) Employees working in areas where there are potential electrical hazards shall be provided with, and shall use, electrical protective equipment that is appropriate for the specific parts of the body to be protected and for the work to be performed.”

This regulation requires that employees must be properly protected from potential electrical hazards, by using adequate PPE, but it does not provide specific detail of what specific personal protective equipment is necessary to achieve the objective. NFPA 70E is used to define the specific details and requirements.


Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

 

2015 May 7 8:00 am Design of Electric Power Systems – Part 2

Synopsis: When it comes to designing an electric power system, the NEC® is just the minimum. This is the second part of a 2 day program to show you how to design and electrical system using the NEC but also how to go beyond the code. When and why do you need to oversize neutrals? How do you perform lighting calculations? Learn some of the “tricks of the trade” when it comes to electrical design. This class is also part of the one week Power System Engineering course held publicly several times a year.

Description

TRANSFORMERS
Types of Transformers, Characteristics and Specifications, K Factor, Protection Based on NEC 450, Inrush Current

MOTOR CIRCUITS
Locked Rotor and Overload Protection, Insulation Class / Service Factor, Motor Tables, Sizing of Feeders, Protection

GROUNDING
Grounding Electrode System, Equipment Ground, Conductor, Selection, Separately Derived Systems, High Resistance, Ground, Ground Loops and Power Quality

HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
Class I, II, and III, Divisions and Groups, Explosion Proof, Design Requirements

LIGHTNING PROTECTION
Air Terminals, Conductors, NFPA 780

GENERATORS
Emergency vs. Standby, Selection of Unit, Gasoline, Gas, (LP/Natural), Diesel Driven, Design Factors

AUTOMATIC TRANSFER SWITCHES
Size and Ratings, 3 Pole vs. 4 Pole

UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLIES
Sizing, Heat Loss, Compatibility with Generators

2015 May 7 8:00 am Design of Electric Power Systems – Part 1

Synopsis
When It comes to designing an electric power system, the NEC® is just the minimum. This is the first part of a 2 day program to show you how to design and electrical system using the NEC but also how to go beyond the code. When and why do you need to oversize neutrals? How do you perform lighting calculations? Learn some of the “tricks of the trade” when it comes to electrical design. This class is also part of the week long “Power System Engineering” class that is held publicly several times a year.

Description

INTRODUCTION
Safety, Codes and Standards, Economics

TYPES OF SYSTEMS
Radial, Network, Double Ended

VOLTAGE SELECTION
120/240V, 208Y/120V, 480Y/277V
Delta vs. Wye, Voltage Drop Issues

LOAD CALCULATIONS
Lighting and Appliance Loads, Receptacles,
VA per Square ft., Continuous vs. Non-Continuous

CONDUCTORS
Conductor and Conduit Sizing, Insulation Type,
Correction Factors, Neutral and Ground Conductors

OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
Fuses, Circuit Breakers, Ground Fault Protection, Time
Current Curves, Operation and Settings of Devices

PANELBOARDS
Branch and Main Circuit Breakers, Lighting and Appliance

SWITCHBOARDS
Bus Ratings, Breakers, Bus Bracing, AIC, Layout, Series
Ratings, Bus Structure

LIGHTING DESIGN
Zonal Cavity Lighting Calculations, Lighting Layout

CASE PROBLEM

2015 May 7 8:00 am Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies – Part 2

Conference1In Part 2 of the 2 day class, Jim Phillips, P.E. shows you how to perform arc flash calculations and conduct the comprehensive arc flash study. You will perform IEEE 1584 calculations of incident energy, arcing current, arc flash boundary and DC arc flash using Jim’s calculation worksheets. You will see how to simplify the arc flash study and arc flash labeling as well as understand how to properly model the power system.  Receive answers to questions such as: what if  a protective device’s clearing time is too long, what is the “X Distance Factor”, does the type of equipment matter in the calculations? what if the utility information is unavailable,  what really needs to go on an arc flash label and much more.  Plus, you will also get a peek into the next edition of IEEE 1584.

Jim Phillips is not just another trainer reading a script.   Jim’s training is based on his insider’s view from holding many leadership positions for the development of various electrical safety standards coupled with his arc flash testing experience and broad electrical power background.  This provides him a unique perspective from the inside – a perspective he loves sharing with others. When asked questions about some topics, his explanations often run along the line of “Well, here’s what happened in the lab when we blew it up…”

Here is a sample of Jim’s involvement.

Vice Chair – IEEE 1584 – IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Calculations
International Chair – Geneva, Switzerland based,  IEC TC78 Live Working – 40+ global standards including many for arc flash.
IEEE/NFPA Arc Flash Collaborative Research Project – Member of the Steering Committee
Author of Complete Guide to Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies

For a summary of the 2018 changes to NFPA 70E based on Jim’s article published in the multi-award winning Electrical Contractor Magazine, [CLICK HERE]

[Learn more about Jim Phillips]


What You WILL Receive:

Arc Flash Class Recive These

Instructions on how to perform an Arc Flash Study
Jim’s AC AND DC arc flash calculation worksheets
Training manual containing over 300 pages
Jim’s 30 page Arc Flash Calculation Guide
Many calculation examples and problems
16 hours of Continuing Education Credit

 


Part Two – Agenda

ARC FLASH STUDY BASED ON IEEE 1584 CALCULATIONS
Overview, Data Requirements, Where to Begin

ELECTRIC UTILITY COMPANY DATA
What data should be requested, minimum and maximum fault current, why not to use infinite bus calculations, what if the data can not be obtained?

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM AND SYSTEM MODELING
Importance of the Up-to-Date Diagram, System Configurations, High vs. Low Fault Current, 125 kVA Transformer Exception, Motor Contribution

ARCING CURRENT CALCULATIONS, WORKSHEETS, EXAMPLE AND PROBLEMS
IEEE 1584 Arcing Current Calculations < 1kV and 1 kV to 15 kV, Defining the Arc Gap Based on Equipment Type, K1 for Arcing Current in a Box vs. Open Air

ARC FLASH DURATION – TIME CURRENT CURVES
Determining the Arcing Current Clearing time, 85% vs. 100%, 2 Second Cut Off Allowance, Time Current Curves, Arc Self Extinction

INCIDENT ENERGY CALCULATIONS, WORKSHEETS AND CLASS PROBLEMS
IEEE 1584 Incident Energy Calculations, Calculation Parameters, Calculation Factor Cf, Distance Exponent X, Working Distance, Grounded vs. Ungrounded, Effect of Equipment Type on Incident Energy Calculations

ARC FLASH BOUNDARY CALCULATIONS, WORKSHEETS AND CLASS PROBLEMS
Arc Flash Boundary Calculations Based IEEE 1584 Equations, Unusually Large Boundaries, Calculation Worksheets, Problem Solving

DC ARC FLASH CALCULATIONS, WORKSHEETS, EXAMPLES AND PROBLEMS
V-I Characteristics, DC Arc Resistance Calculations, DC Incident Energy Calculations, Box vs. Open Arc Calculations, Calculation Worksheets, Problem Solving

DETERMINING PPE REQUIRMENTS FROM INCIDENT ENERGY CALCULATIONS
Using calculated incident energy to determine PPE requirements. Simplifying the Selection

ARC FLASH WARNING LABELS
Simplifying the Arc Flash Labels, Minimum Requirements, Label Locations, ANSI Z535 Requirements, Incident Energy vs. Site Specific PPE vs. Arc Rating, Signal Words and Colors

RECOMMENDATIONS TO REDUCE THE ARC FLASH HAZARD
Increase Working Distance, Remote Operation, Maintenance Settings, Arc Resistant Equipment, Current Limiting Devices, “Holes” in Present Standards, The Electrically Safe Working Condition Paradox, Future Research and Developments

STEPS TO SIMPLIFY THE ARC FLASH CALCULATION STUDY
Jim’s “What would you like the answer to be?” Approach, Simplify the Selection of PPE and Arc Flash Boundary

QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS CLASS?  CONTACT US AT 800.874.8883


Receive Answers to These Questions and More:

How do I organize a study?
 Where do I obtain the required data?
 Do I need all data such as conductor lengths?
How do I calculate AC incident energy, arcing current & arc flash boundary?
What is the difference between low voltage and medium voltage calculations?
How do I calculate DC incident energy from an arc flash?
How do I calculate DC arc resistance and what is a V-I characteristic?
How accurate are the IEEE 1584 calculations?
 Why do I also have to analyze arc flash during for minimum fault currents?
What very important question do I ask the electric utility?
Are time current curves a reliable way to determine arc flash clearing time?
What if I have a low arcing current that causes a long clearing time?
 How do I use the NESC Table 410.1 and 410.2 for electric utility systems?
Why do I use a comparison of 100% and 85% of the arcing current?
Does the type of equipment make a difference in the calculations?
What about grounded vs. ungrounded systems?
 How do I include motor contribution to the calculations?
What are the Calculation Factor Cf and Distance Exponent Factor X?
 How can current limiting devices reduce the incident energy?
Why use remote operation, arc resistant equipment, and maintenance switches?
Why is selecting the correct working distance an important part of the calculations?
What are Jim’s latest tests and what are plans for the next revision to IEEE 1584?
Why is the L/E ratio ™ so important?


What is an Arc Flash Study?

See how to Calculate the Incident Energy at the Working Distance

See how to Calculate the Incident Energy at the Working Distance

As part of an arc flash study (Risk Assessment) the incident energy exposure level is determined based on the working distance of the employee’s face and chest areas from a prospective arc source. Arc-rated clothing and other PPE is selected with a rating sufficient for the incident energy exposure and shall be used by the employee based on the specific task. IEEE Std. 1584 tm, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations is the method used globally for calculating the prospective incident energy.
NFPA 70E also requires determining the arc flash boundary, which is the distance from a potential arc source where the incident energy is 1.2 cal/cm2. This value is considered to be the point at which the onset of a second-degree burn occurs. Live work performed outside of the arc flash boundary does not require PPE, although the risk of some injury still exists.

The concept of these requirements is simple. At each location, the arc flash study is used to determine: The perspective incident energy exposure for a worker’s chest and face, the rating of PPE based on the perspective incident energy, the arc flash boundary.

Although the 2018 Edition of NFPA 70E provides more generalized PPE tables as a simplified alternative for PPE selection, an arc flash calculation study requires performing calculations to estimate the magnitude of incident energy exposure. These calculations are based on specific details, including the available short circuit current, device clearing time, grounding, arc gap distance, equipment type, and many other factors.

This information, as well as data regarding electric shock protection and approach limits, can be included on the arc flash warning labels placed on the equipment under study. Before conducting energized work, a qualified worker can refer to the label and obtain the data necessary for the shock hazard risk assessment and the arc flash hazard risk assessment as required by NFPA 70E.

Although an arc flash study can appear to be complex, it can be more manageable when broken down into basic steps as outlined in this training program.


Why Perform an Arc Flash Study?

According to OSHA 1910.132(d) The employer is responsible to assess the hazards in the work

Jim is setting up an arc flash test.

Jim is setting up an arc flash test.

place, select, have, and use the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and document the assessment. The use of NFPA 70E and other related industry consensus standards has been used to demonstrate whether an employer acted reasonably when there is a possible OSHA enforcement action taken.

So although NFPA 70E is not directly part of OSHA standards, it can be used as evidence of whether an employer acted reasonably in complying with OSHA standards and addressing “recognized hazards”.

There are more specific links within the OSHA standards as well. A typical example is found in 1910.335, Safeguards for personnel protection which requires: “(a)(1)(i) Employees working in areas where there are potential electrical hazards shall be provided with, and shall use, electrical protective equipment that is appropriate for the specific parts of the body to be protected and for the work to be performed.”

This regulation requires that employees must be properly protected from potential electrical hazards, by using adequate PPE, but it does not provide specific detail of what specific personal protective equipment is necessary to achieve the objective. It might be considered that based on this generalized statement, the selection of the correct PPE is open to interpretation however, this would be incorrect and an Arc Flash study should be performed.


Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

2015 May 7 8:00 am Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies – Part 1

Conference1In part one of the two day Arc Flash Training class, Jim Phillips, P.E. introduces the concepts required to perform an arc flash study based on IEEE 1584.  These concepts which not only include NFPA 70E requirements but also short circuit calculation basics, time current coordination curves, 85 percent multiplier, 125 kVA cut off, labeling and more, are necessary for a better understanding of the arc flash study process.  You will see how to simplify the arc flash study and arc flash labeling.  Receive answers to questions such as: why should an “infinite bus” short circuit calculation not be used, what is the “2 Second Rule”, what if the utility information is unavailable,  what really needs to go on an arc flash label and much more.  Plus, you will also get a peek into the next edition of IEEE 1584.

Jim Phillips is not just another trainer reading a script.   Jim’s training is based on his insider’s view from holding many leadership positions for the development of various electrical safety standards coupled with his arc flash testing experience and broad electrical power background.  This provides him a unique perspective from the inside – a perspective he loves sharing with others. When asked questions about some topics, his explanations often run along the line of “Well, here’s what happened in the lab when we blew it up…”

Here is a sample of Jim’s involvement.

Vice Chair – IEEE 1584 – IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Calculations
International Chair – Geneva, Switzerland based,  IEC TC78 Live Working – 40+ global standards including many for arc flash.
IEEE/NFPA Arc Flash Collaborative Research Project – Member of the Steering Committee
Author of Complete Guide to Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies

For a summary of the 2018 changes to NFPA 70E based on Jim’s article published in the multi-award winning Electrical Contractor Magazine, [CLICK HERE]

[Learn more about Jim Phillips]


What You WILL Receive:

Arc Flash Class Recive TheseInstructions on how to perform an Arc Flash Study
Training manual containing over 150 pages
Jim’s 30 page Arc Flash Calculation Guide
Many calculation examples and problems
8 hours of Continuing Education Credit

 


Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies – Part One

HUMAN EFFECTS
Physiological Effects, Electrocution, Tissue Damage, Internal Organ Damage, Burns Fibrillation, “Curable” 2nd Degree Burn

CODES AND STANDARDS
OSHA 29 CFR – Part 1910, Subpart S, NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2015 NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, IEEE Standard 1584™, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations, Legal Requirements, Liability

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
Electric Shock, Arc Flash, Arc Blast, Ultraviolet Light, Sound Pressure, Burn Injury

ARC FLASH CIRCUIT DYNAMICS – FAULT CURRENT, ARC DURATION, PLASMA
Arcing Faults vs. Bolted Faults / IEEE 1584, Effect of Current on Overcurrent Device Clearing Time, Current Limitation, Effect of Transformer Size and Source Strength

2018 NFPA 70E REQUIREMENTS
Shock and Arc Flash Risk Assessments, Creating Energized Work Permits, Electrically Safe Working Conditions, Arc Flash Labels, Qualified Person

ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL WORK PERMIT
Purpose of Permit, Using IEEE 1584 Calculations for the EEWP, Approvals Process, Exemptions

ARC FLASH BOUNDARY
AFB Definition, Purpose, Work Within the Arc Flash Boundary, Jim’s Approach – Using Standardized Large Boundaries, Overview of IEEE 1584 approach.

ARC-FLASH HAZARD IDENTIFICATION TABLE
NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(a) Arc-Flash Hazard Identification for AC Systems,
When is Arc Flash PPE Required?

ARC-FLASH HAZARD PPE CATEGORIES
Use of NFPA 70E Table 130.7(C)(15)(A)(b) Arc-Flash Hazard PPE Categories

ARC RATED CLOTHING AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT SELECTION
Using IEEE 1584 Incident Energy Calculations to Select Protective Clothing and PPE, Face Protection, Head Protection, Hand Protection, Foot Protection, Limitations

IEEE 1584 –GUIDE FOR PERFORMING ARC FLASH HAZARD CALCULATIONS
History and Overview, Range of Applicability, Data Requirements, Study Process, Table of Results for the Arc Flash Study Report.

QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS CLASS?  CONTACT US AT 800.874.8883


Receive Answers to These Questions and More:

How do I organize a study?
What equipment really needs labeled?
Where do I obtain the required data?
How much information is really required on the arc flash label?
 Can I mix NFPA 70E Tables with arc flash calculations?
What PPE should I wear when I am gathering data to study what PPE I should wear?
Why do I also have to analyze arc flash during for minimum fault currents?
 Are time current curves a reliable way to determine arc flash clearing time?
What if I have a low arcing current that causes a long clearing time?
Is the 125 kVA 208V exclusion discussed in IEEE 1584 appropriate?
Is the “2 second cut off” appropriate?
How long can an arc sustain itself? – discussion of recent test data.
 What about Arc Blast and the 40 calories / centimeter squared upper limit? – Is it realistic?
 How do I greatly simplify the Arc Flash Protection Boundary and PPE selection?
How can current limiting devices reduce the incident energy?
Why use remote operation, arc resistant equipment, and maintenance switches?
 What are Jim’s latest tests and what are plans for the next revision to IEEE 1584?
Why is the L/E ratio ™ so important?


What is an Arc Flash Study?

See how to Calculate the Incident Energy at the Working Distance

See how to Calculate the Incident Energy at the Working Distance

As part of an arc flash study (Risk Assessment) the incident energy exposure level is determined based on the working distance of the employee’s face and chest areas from a prospective arc source. Arc-rated clothing and other PPE is selected with a rating sufficient for the incident energy exposure and shall be used by the employee based on the specific task. IEEE Std. 1584 tm, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations is the method used globally for calculating the prospective incident energy.
NFPA 70E also requires determining the arc flash boundary, which is the distance from a potential arc source where the incident energy is 1.2 cal/cm2. This value is considered to be the point at which the onset of a second-degree burn occurs. Live work performed outside of the arc flash boundary does not require PPE, although the risk of some injury still exists.

The concept of these requirements is simple. At each location, the arc flash study is used to determine: The perspective incident energy exposure for a worker’s chest and face, the rating of PPE based on the perspective incident energy, the arc flash boundary.

Although the 2015 Edition of NFPA 70E provides more generalized PPE tables as a simplified alternative for PPE selection, an arc flash calculation study requires performing calculations to estimate the magnitude of incident energy exposure. These calculations are based on specific details, including the available short circuit current, device clearing time, grounding, arc gap distance, equipment type, and many other factors.

This information, as well as data regarding electric shock protection and approach limits, can be included on the arc flash warning labels placed on the equipment under study. Before conducting energized work, a qualified worker can refer to the label and obtain the data necessary for the shock hazard risk assessment and the arc flash hazard risk assessment as required by NFPA 70E.

Although an arc flash study can appear to be complex, it can be more manageable when broken down into basic steps as outlined in this training program.


Why Perform an Arc Flash Study?

According to OSHA 1910.132(d) The employer is responsible to assess the hazards in the work

Jim is setting up an arc flash test.

Jim is setting up an arc flash test.

place, select, have, and use the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and document the assessment. The use of NFPA 70E and other related industry consensus standards has been used to demonstrate whether an employer acted reasonably when there is a possible OSHA enforcement action taken.

So although NFPA 70E is not directly part of OSHA standards, it can be used as evidence of whether an employer acted reasonably in complying with OSHA standards and addressing “recognized hazards”.

There are more specific links within the OSHA standards as well. A typical example is found in 1910.335, Safeguards for personnel protection which requires: “(a)(1)(i) Employees working in areas where there are potential electrical hazards shall be provided with, and shall use, electrical protective equipment that is appropriate for the specific parts of the body to be protected and for the work to be performed.”

This regulation requires that employees must be properly protected from potential electrical hazards, by using adequate PPE, but it does not provide specific detail of what specific personal protective equipment is necessary to achieve the objective. It might be considered that based on this generalized statement, the selection of the correct PPE is open to interpretation however, this would be incorrect and an Arc Flash study should be performed.


Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

2015 May 7 8:00 am Per Unit and Symmetrical Components – Electrical Power Calculations

Overview – Electrical Power Calculations Class

Conference2This course by Jim Phillips, P.E. has become the industry standard that defines the “Crash Course” in electrical power system analysis. Very few universities teach Per Unit and Symmetrical Components calculations anymore but it is still a fundamental concept for electric power system analysis. Jim Phillips teaches you the basics of the per unit system and electric power system analysis during the first day of the two day class.

On the second day, Jim builds upon the per unit system and takes you to the next level with symmetrical components and unbalanced power system calculations. Learn how to more easily use positive, negative and zero sequence components and draw zero sequence diagrams.This class is loaded with many in class examples and problems for a hands on learning experience.

Jim has developed this course based on over 30 years of extensive experience with industrial, commercial and utility power systems.

[About Jim Phillips]


What You Will Receive

 Training manual and course material
Jim’s calculation worksheets
 Access to Technical articles
Many calculation examples and problems
 16 hours of Continuing Education Credit


Have This Class On-Site at Your Location

You can also have this class conducted on-site at your location.  Contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883 to see about having Jim teach this class to your staff at your company’s facilities.  Contact us for your custom on-site training proposal.


Day One Agenda – Electrical Power Calculations

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS CONCEPTS
Introduction to Power System Analysis, Basic Fundamentals, Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance, RLC Circuits, Series and Parallel Circuits, Delta/Wye Conversions, Complex Impedances, Per Phase Analysis, Thevenin Equivalent Impedance

PER UNIT ANALYSIS
Understanding the Per Unit System and Its Uses.  Defining Base Quantities, Per Unit Voltage Per Unite Current and Per Unit Impedance, Selecting the Appropriate MVA and kV Base, Calculating the Base Current and Impedance, Changing Bases, Per Unit Problem Solving Worksheets, Per Unit Calculation Examples and Problems

PER UNIT IMPEDANCE DIAGRAMS
Developing the Per Unit Impedance Diagram, Converting circuit impedances from ohms to per unit values,  Labeling the Diagram, Load Calculations using the Per Unit Diagram Impedance Diagram, Per Unit Short Circuit Calculations using the Impedance Diagram

METERING
Ammeter, Voltmeter, Wattmeter, Varmeter, Current Transformers and Potential Transformers

TRANSFORMERS
Transformer Turns Ratio, Transformer Analysis, Efficiency, Transformer Impedance, Transformer Circuit Model, Modeling Core and Winding Losses, Calculating Voltage Regulation

ROTATING MACHINES
Induction Machines Modeling, Induction Machine Circuit Analysis, Stator and Rotor Impedances, Motor Slip, Poles and Number of Windings, Motor Speed, Calculating Full Load Amps, Locked Rotor Amps and Power Factor. Conversion from Electrical Power to Mechanical Power, Motor Efficiency, Solving induction machine problems


Day Two Agenda – Electrical Power Calculations

CONDUCTOR MODELING
Impedance Data, Geometric Mean Radius, Geometric Mean Distance, Skin Effect, ACSR and other types of Conductors

TRANSMISSION LINES
Short, Medium and Long Transmission Line Models, Pi and T models.  Effect of Capacitive Line Charging on Longer Lines, Voltage Drop, Sending End and Receiving End Voltage Calculations, Conductor Data a.k.a. “The Birds” Wax Wing, Blue Jay, Partridge etc.

MOTOR STARTING
Using the Per Unit System to Solve Motor Starting Problems, Effect of Source Strength and Motor Starting Current on Voltage Flicker, Electric Utility Concerns, Voltage Flicker Curve, Voltage Flicker Analysis

INTRODUCTION TO SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS 
Introduction to Symmetrical Components, Using Sequence Networks, Positive, Negative and Zero Sequence, Solving Unbalanced Problems Using Three Balanced Set of Vectors, Creating Zero Sequence Diagrams, Effect of Transformer and System Grounding on Zero Sequence Impedance

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS CALCULATIONS
Solving Symmetrical Component Problems Painlessly! Transmission Line Calculation Problems and Examples, Solving for Three Phase and Line-to-Ground Short Circuit Current Using Positive, Negative and Zero Sequence Impedances, Example Problem of Ungrounded Transformer’s Effect on Z0

SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
Ohmic and Per Unit Calculations, Symmetrical Component Calculations for Balanced and Unbalanced Calculations Using Z1, Z2 and Z0

POWER FACTOR AND HARMONICS
Vars, Watts, VA and Power Factor, Reactive Power and Sizing the Power Factor Correction Capacitor, Harmonic Concerns


Attend This Class to See How To:Power Distribution 1

 Perform Calculations with the Per Unit System
 Draw Impedance Diagrams
 Understand the Selection of Base Values
 Properly Use Positive, Negative and Zero Sequence Impedances
 Use Jim’s Short Cut Method to Develop Sequence Diagrams
 Perform Calculations with Symmetrical Components
 Perform Other Types of Calculations such as Power Factor


 

 

Questions?

Brain LogoFor questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at 800.874.8883

Brainfiller, Inc. | P.O. Box 12024 | Scottsdale, AZ 85267

2015 May 5 8:00 am Medium Voltage Power Systems – Part 1

Synopsis The backbone of many electric power systems is the medium voltage distribution system. Typically operating at voltages ranging from 2,400 to 34,500 Volts, voltage stress, corona, surges and protection of equipment all create unique challenges in design, equipment selection, operation and engineering. This first of 2 classes Jim Phillips, P.E. takes you through the …

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