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**How to Perform an Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Study – 2018 IEEE 1584**

IT IS FINALLY HERE! After 16 long years, the next edition of IEEE 1584 was finally published. In this two-day arc flash training class, Jim Phillips, P.E., introduces the 2018 edition of the IEEE 1584. Jim discusses the changes, walks you through the calculations with his new worksheets and how the 2018 edition is is used in arc flash studies.

The 2018 edition of IEEE 1584 is a major game changer. Almost everything has changed since the original edition was introduced in 2002.

Highlights of the next edition include:

- Five different electrode configurations to enable more detailed modeling
- Vertical electrodes in a metal box/enclosure – VCB (also in 2002 Edition)
- Vertical electrodes terminated in an insulating barrier in a metal box/enclosure – VCCB
- Horizontal electrodes in a metal box/enclosure – HCB
- Vertical electrodes in open air – VOA (also in 2002 Edition)
- Horizontal electrodes in open air – HOA

- More choices for enclosure types and sizes
- Enclosure correction factor calculation to adjust for specific enclosure size
- The effect of grounding has been eliminated
- An arcing current variation factor calculation replaces the 85% factor
- Calculations performed at 1 of 3 voltage levels with interpolation to actual voltage
- The 125 kVA transformer exception was eliminated

Each calculation is performed in 2 steps which includes an initial calculation based on one of three voltage levels and a second calculation interpolating to the specific system voltage. The 125 kVA “exception” was replaced. Learn why and what has replaced it. What about the 2 second rule? Jim discusses all this and much more.

**Register 3 People and the 4th is FREE!**

When asked questions about some topics, his explanations often run along the line of “Well, here’s what happened in the lab when we blew it up…” or “Here is why it was written in a particular way”

Read Jim’s article outlining the major changes to IEEE 1584 **[Read Article]**

**Agenda – 2018 IEEE 1584 Arc Flash Training Class**

**INTRODUCTION TO ARC FLASH STUDIES**

**ARC FLASH AND OTHER ELECTRICAL HAZARDS**

Physiological Effects, Electrocution, Tissue Damage, Internal Organ Damage, Burns Fibrillation, “Curable” 2nd Degree Burn

**CODES AND STANDARDS**

OSHA 29 CFR – Part 1910, Subpart S, NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2018 NFPA 70E, (CSA Z462 for Canada Classes) Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, 2018 IEEE Standard 1584™, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations, Legal Requirements, Liability

** ****2018 EDITION – IEEE 1584 – DEVELOPMENT**

History of the Development of the 2018 IEEE 1584, IEEE/NFPA Collaboration, Working Group and Project Team, Almost 2000 New Arc Flash Tests, What Took So Long? Range of Applicability, Data Requirements, Study Process, Table of Results for the Arc Flash Study Report.

**ARC FLASH CIRCUIT DYNAMICS **

Arcing Faults vs. Bolted Faults, Effect of Current on Overcurrent Device Clearing Time, Current Limitation, Effect of Transformer Size and Source Strength

**MODELING THE ARC FLASH STUDY**

One-Line, Data, System Configuration, Multiple Sources

**ELECTRIC UTILITY COMPANY DATA**

What data should be requested, minimum and maximum fault current, why not to use infinite bus calculations, what if the data can not be obtained?

**OVERVIEW OF CHANGES TO THE 2018 IEEE 1584**

Introduction and Summary of the Major Changes

**ELECTRODE CONFIGURATIONS**

VCB – Vertical electrodes in a metal box/enclosure, VCCB Vertical electrodes terminated in an insulating barrier in a metal box/enclosure, HCB – Horizontal electrodes in a metal box/enclosure, VOA – Vertical electrodes in open air, HOA – Horizontal electrodes in open air

**ARCING SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATIONS– LOW VOLTAGE**

Calculation of Intermediate Average Arcing Current, Calculation Final Arcing Current – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

**ENCLOSURE SIZES AND TYPES**

New Enclosures, Sizes and Types, Gap Distances

**ENCLOSURE SIZE CORRECTION FACTOR CALCULATIONS**

Determining Correction Factor for Enclosure Size. Shallow vs. Typical Enclosure

**WORKING DISTANCE**

Selection of Working Distance for Incident Energy Calculations

**ARC DURATION**

Using Time Current Curves, 2 Second Cut Off, Arc Sustainability, 125 kVA Transformer Exception Deletion – Why?

**INCIDENT ENERGY CALCULATIONS – LOW VOLTAGE**

Calculation of Intermediate Incident Energy, Calculation of Final Incident Energy – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

**ARC FLASH BOUNDARY CALCULATIONS – LOW VOLTAGE**

Calculation of Intermediate Arc Flash Boundary, Calculation of Final Arc Flash Boundary – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

**ARCING CURRENT VARIATION FACTOR**

Calculation the Arcing Current Variation Factor for Minimum Arcing Current, Replacement for 85% factor, Applies to all Voltages

**ARCING SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATIONS – MEDIUM VOLTAGE**

Calculation of Intermediate Average Arcing Current, Calculation Final Arcing Current – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

**INCIDENT ENERGY CALCULATIONS – MEDIUM VOLTAGE**

Calculation of Intermediate Incident Energy, Calculation of Final Incident Energy – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

**ARC FLASH BOUNDARY CALCULATIONS – MEDIUM VOLTAGE**

Calculation of Intermediate Arc Flash Boundary, Calculation of Final Arc Flash Boundary – Interpolate for Voltage, Coefficients, Data

**DC ARC FLASH CALCULATIONS **

V-I Characteristics, DC Arc Resistance Calculations, DC Incident Energy Calculations, Box vs. Open Arc Calculations, Calculation Worksheets, Problem Solving

**COMPARISON OF CALCULATION METHODS AND CONFIGURATIONS**

Calculation Results from 2002 IEEE 1584 Compared to 2018 IEEE 1584, Comparison or Results for VCB, VCCB, HCB

**MODELING TIPS**

Selection of Electrode Configuration, Enclosure Size, Gap Distances

**OTHER HAZARD MEASUREMENTS**

Light, Blast Pressure, Sound Pressure

**DETERMINING PPE ****REQUIREMENTS**** FROM INCIDENT ENERGY CALCULATIONS**

Using calculated incident energy to determine PPE requirements. Simplifying the Selection

** ****ARC FLASH WARNING LABELS**

Jim’s Simplification for Arc Flash Labels to Reduce or Eliminate the Need to Re-Label, Minimum Requirements, Label Locations, ANSI Z535 Requirements, Incident Energy vs. Site Specific PPE vs. Arc Rating, Signal Words and Colors

**QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS CLASS OR TO HOLD IT AT YOUR LOCATION: **

**CONTACT US AT 800.874.8883**

**Receive Answers to These Questions and More:**

• How do I organize a study?

• What equipment really needs labeled?

• Where do I obtain the required data?

• How much information is really required on the arc flash label?

• Do I need all data such as conductor lengths?

• How do I calculate AC incident energy, arcing current & arc flash boundary?

• What is the difference between low voltage and medium voltage calculations?

• How do I calculate DC incident energy from an arc flash?

• How do I calculate DC arc resistance and what is a V-I characteristic?

• How accurate are the IEEE 1584 calculations?

• Why do I also have to analyze arc flash during for minimum fault currents?

• What very important question do I ask the electric utility?

• Are time current curves a reliable way to determine arc flash clearing time?

• What if I have a low arcing current that causes a long clearing time?

• Why was the 125 kVA 208V exclusion deleted?

• Is the “2 second cut off” appropriate?

• How long can an arc sustain itself? – discussion of recent test data.

• Why do I use a comparison of 100% and the minimum arcing current?

• Does the type of equipment make a difference in the calculations?

• What changed regarding grounded vs. ungrounded systems?

• What about Arc Blast, Light and Sound Pressure?

• How do I include motor contribution to the calculations?

• How can current limiting devices reduce the incident energy?

• Why use remote operation, arc resistant equipment, and maintenance switches?

• Why is selecting the correct working distance an important part of the calculations?•

**What is an Arc Flash Study?**

As part of an arc flash study (Risk Assessment) the incident energy exposure level is determined based on the working distance of the employee’s face and chest areas from a prospective arc source. Arc-rated clothing and other PPE is selected with a rating sufficient for the incident energy exposure and shall be used by the employee based on the specific task. IEEE Std. 1584 tm, IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations is the method used globally for calculating the prospective incident energy.

NFPA 70E and CSA Z462 also require determining the arc flash boundary, which is the distance from a potential arc source where the incident energy is 1.2 cal/cm2. This value is considered to be the point at which the onset of a second-degree burn occurs. Live work performed outside of the arc flash boundary does not require PPE, although the risk of some injury still exists.

The concept of these requirements is simple. At each location, the arc flash study is used to determine: The perspective incident energy exposure for a worker’s chest and face, the rating of PPE based on the perspective incident energy, the arc flash boundary.

Although NFPA 70E provides more generalized PPE tables as a simplified alternative for PPE selection, an arc flash calculation study requires performing calculations to estimate the magnitude of incident energy exposure. These calculations are based on specific details, including the available short circuit current, device clearing time, grounding, arc gap distance, equipment type, and many other factors.

This information, as well as data regarding electric shock protection and approach limits, can be included on the arc flash warning labels placed on the equipment under study. Before conducting energized work, a qualified worker can refer to the label and obtain the data necessary for the shock hazard risk assessment and the arc flash hazard risk assessment as required by NFPA 70E and CSA Z462.

Although an arc flash study can appear to be complex, it can be more manageable when broken down into basic steps as outlined in this training program.

**Why Perform an Arc Flash Study?**

According to OSHA 1910.132(d) The employer is responsible to assess the hazards in the work

place, select, have, and use the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and document the assessment. The use of NFPA 70E and other related industry consensus standards has been used to demonstrate whether an employer acted reasonably when there is a possible OSHA enforcement action taken.

So although NFPA 70E is not directly part of OSHA standards, it can be used as evidence of whether an employer acted reasonably in complying with OSHA standards and addressing “recognized hazards”.

There are more specific links within the OSHA standards as well. A typical example is found in 1910.335, Safeguards for personnel protection which requires: *“(a)(1)(i) Employees working in areas where there are potential electrical hazards shall be provided with, and shall use, electrical protective equipment that is appropriate for the specific parts of the body to be protected and for the work to be performed.”*

This regulation requires that employees must be properly protected from potential electrical hazards, by using adequate PPE, but it does not provide specific detail of what specific personal protective equipment is necessary to achieve the objective. It might be considered that based on this generalized statement, the selection of the correct PPE is open to interpretation however, this would be incorrect and an Arc Flash study should be performed.

**Questions?**

For questions, registration information or to discuss holding this class at your location as an on-site training program, contact our Program Director at **800.874.8883 (In U.S.) or 480.725.7451**

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