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Complete Guide to Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies - No Longer Available

Complete Guide to: Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies – 282 Pages – Based on the 2002 Edition of IEEE 1584

By Jim Phillips, P.E.


[Learn more about Jim Phillips]

Book Summary

Step by Step Approach – This book takes the entire Arc Flash Study process and breaks it down into individual steps with one chapter for each step.

Solved Examples – This book is Packed with many solved example problems to help illustrate the details of each equation and calculation method.

Calculation Work Sheets – Solving complex equations such as those used for the study can seem overwhelming. However, Jim takes each arc flash equation and breaks it down into simple steps by using work sheets that he developed to simplify the problem solving process.

Tricks and Traps – Many questions and potential problem areas are frequently encountered when performing the Arc Flash Study. Jim provides many tricks that can be used for the study and also warnings about the potential traps that could be encountered. You will also see how to successfully make assumptions and simplify the overall process.

DC Arc Flash Calculations – Although not part of any standard (yet), this is the first book of it’s kind to include DC arc flash calculations and worksheets with many examples and illustrations based on a few well known technical papers.


Book Overview

Chapter 1. Warning! Arc Flash Hazard

  • What is an Arc Flash?
  • Burn Injuries

Chapter 2. Codes and Standards

  • Who Says I Have to Perform the Study?
  • OSHA CFR Title 29
  • NFPA 70E—Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace
  • Shock Hazard Analysis
  • Arc Flash Warning Labels
  • NFPA 70 National Electrical Code
  • Many Standards Define the Arc Flash Study and Protection Requirements

Chapter 3. What is an Arc-Flash Hazard Calculation Study?

  • What is an Arc-Flash Hazard Calculation Study?
  • Why Perform the Arc-Flash Hazard Calculation Study?
  • Calculation Methods
  • The Study Process

Chapter 4. Data Collection

  • Where Do I begin?
  • PPE To Wear During Data Collection
  • Single Line Diagrams
  • Jump Start the Project
  • Source Data
  • Impedance Data
  • Protective Device Data
  • Arc Flash Study Parameters
  • Type of Equipment
  • Data Assumptions
  • Equipment Condition and Maintenance

Chapter 5. Single Line Diagram

  • Developing the Single Line Diagram
  • Operating Scenarios

Chapter 6. System Modeling

  • System Modeling
  • Comparison of Scenarios—Does the PPE Level Change?

Chapter 7. Bolted Short Circuit Current

  • What is a Short Circuit?
  • Short Circuit Study—Bolted Short Circuit Current
  • Simplified “Infinite Bus” Short Circuit Calculation
  • Comparison of Transformer kVA Rating and Short Circuit Current
  • Effect of the Source Impedance
  • Effect of the Conductors
  • Short Circuit Motor Contribution

Chapter 8. Arcing Short Circuit Current

  • Arcing Short Circuit vs. Bolted Short Circuit
  • Arcing Short Circuit Current Calculations
  • Arcing Short Circuit Calculations ≤ 1kV

Chapter 9. Arc Flash Duration and Time Current Curves

  • Duration of Arc Flash Exposure
  • Factors Affecting Arc Flash Duration
  • Time Current Curves
  • Selective Coordination and Maintenance Settings
  • Transformer Secondary Blind Spot and Danger Areas
  • Overcurrent Device Age and Condition
  • Device Setting or Rating Changes
  • 100% vs. 85% of Arcing Current

Chapter 10. Incident Energy Calculations

  • Incident Energy
  • Incident Energy Calculations ≤ 15 kV Three Phas
  • Incident Energy Calculations > 15 kV
  • Current Limiting Devices
  • Clearing Time is Everything

Chapter 11. Arc Flash Boundary

  • Arc Flash Boundary
  • IEEE 1584 Arc Flash Boundary < 15 kV
  • Arc Flash Boundary > 15 kV
  • Using Arc Flash Boundary Equations to determine the safe working distance for PPE with a lower arc rating
  • Keeping Unprotected People Away
  • Keep it Simple! Standardized Arc Flash Protection Boundaries

Chapter 12. DC Arc Flash Calculations

  • Arc Flash is not Just an AC Problem
  • DC Arc Flash Calculations
  • DC Arc Flash Modeling
  • DC Arc Resistance Worksheet
  • Power and Energy in the Arc
  • DC Arc Flash in Open Air
  • DC Arc Flash in an Enclosure / Box
  • What’s Next?

Chapter 13. Arc-Rated Clothing and Personal Protective Equipment

  • Arc-Rated Clothing and PPE Selection
  • OSHA AR Clothing and PPE Requirements
  • NFPA 70E– AR Clothing and PPE Requirements
  • Method One—Incident Energy Analysis
  • Hazard/Risk Category Classification Table
  • Alternative to the Arc-Flash Hazard Calculation Study
  • NESC Arc-Rated Clothing and PPE Requirements
  • Incident Energy Greater Than 40 cal/cm2
  • Arc-Rated Clothing
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • What’s Next?

Chapter 14. Arc Flash Warning Labels

  • Arc Flash Warning Label
  • What Information is required on the label?
  • Which Equipment requires a label?
  • What Colors and Signal Words are required?
  • Where are the Labels Located?
  • Labeling Multi-Section Equipment

Chapter 15. Solutions

  • Recommendations to Reduce Incident Energy
  • Protective Device Setting Changes to Reduce the Arc Flash Hazard
  • Protection Schemes to Reduce the Arc Flash Hazard
  • The Best Method

Chapter 16. The Arc-Flash Hazard Calculation Study Report

  • Put it in Writing
  • The Detailed Report
  • There WILL be Changes!
  • Get Everyone On Board!

Chapter 17. Integrating the Results into the Electrical Safety Program

  • Arc Flash and the Electrical Safety Program
  • How to Recognize the Arc Flash Hazard
  • Arc Flash Protection Boundary
  • Selection of Arc-Rated Clothing and PPE based on Study Results
  • Use of Arc Flash Warning Labels
  • Electrically Safe Work Condition
  • Energized Electrical Work Permit
  • Arc Flash and Electrical Safety Training
  • Finally

Chapter 18. The Final Word—Can it Happen to Me?

  • I am careful—It can’t happen to me!
  • Strange Statistics from My Arc Flash Training
  • The Final Word—Don’t Become a Statistic!


  • Appendix A: Acronyms
  • Appendix B: Data Collection Forms
  • Appendix C: Calculation Worksheets
  • Index