The 2018 Edition of NFPA 70 provides a new definition for the term “Condition of Maintenance” :
The state of the electrical equipment considering the manufacturers’ instructions, manufacturers’ recommendations, and applicable industry codes, standards and recommended practices.
Another term that is cited in NFPA 70E is “Properly Maintained” —these two words often will have people scratching their heads. Of sometimes, developing a legal disclaimer. The term is often a hot topic (pun intended) when discussing the arc flash hazard. Why? Because protective devices such as circuit breakers and relays that have not been properly maintained may not operate as quickly as they should. This means that during an arc flash, a longer duration will result in a greater total incident energy, creating an even greater arc flash hazard.
Calculating the prospective incident energy from an arc flash depends on many variables including the available short-circuit current and the time it takes an upstream protective device to clear the fault. IEEE 1584 – IEEE Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations provides equations that can be used for Continue reading
While I was conducting a 2 day electrical safety training program for a large electric utility, we took a substation tour for a demonstration. Upon entering the control house, there it was. A pole top rescue dummy just begging to be photographed and have a caption added.
Of course the first thing that came to mind (after I stopped laughing) was the seriousness of working around the hazards associated with electricity. One wrong move and anyone can be like the dummy.
Download your copy of the poster here. Don’t be a dummy! Continue reading
IEEE continues to expand its global presence with the opening of the European Technology Center in Vienna. The ribbon-cutting ceremony and official opening were just recently held on September 22. The center will provide support and services to the European technical community, focusing specifically on the needs of academia, government, and industry. In addition, the center will contribute to IEEE’s programs globally. The new office is located in the Austrian Standards Institute building.
“Establishing the European Technology Center marks an important step in furthering IEEE’s global, strategic activities within Europe and beyond,” says Karen Bartleson, 2017 IEEE president and CEO. “We see a strong foundation Continue reading
Jim Phillips, P.E.
One word. Deadly! If someone performs energized electrical work without being properly trained, the results can be catastrophic – and deadly! I have seen this play out regularly during accident investigations and legal cases. The victim was either not properly trained, or perhaps ignored a few steps from the electrical safety training program.
Many companies are very pro-active and make sure their employees are not only trained, but that they receive refresher training at least every three years based on NFPA 70E requirements. Many even use shorter intervals for refresher training or updates. Either way, refresher training is important for staying up to date with current standards and it can be a reminder to those that pick up bad habits along the way.
Electrical Safety Training – More than “Checking the Box”
However, a looming problem is that for some companies, training is either way down the list for various reasons or was not very thorough. I have seen many companies that simply want to “check the box” i.e. state they had training without much regard to what the content was and check it off their to do list. after all, what could possibly go wrong?
By Jim Phillips, P.E.
International Chairman IEC TC 78
Jim at the IEC Central Office in Geneva
As the International Chairman of IEC TC 78, a frequent question that I receive is “What is IEC TC 78?”
IEC is the acronym for the International Electrotechnical Commission based in Geneva, Switzerland. TC 78 standards for Technical Committee 78 which is the Live Working Committee. This committee is responsible for over 40 different International Live Working standards and documents and is represented by 42 countries via National Committees which includes 136 individuals known as Experts. Before I go any further, let’s back up a few steps first. Continue reading
By Jim Phillips
The 2017 National Electrical Code (NEC) contains several changes regarding arc flash:
- 110.16(B) Arc-Flash Hazard Warning of Service Equipment
- 240.87 Arc Energy Reduction (Circuit Breakers)
- 240.67 Arc Energy
The severity of an arc flash is largely dependent on two key variables which include the available short-circuit current and the duration of the arc flash. The short-circuit current is determined by performing a short circuit study involving extensive calculations. The duration is normally defined by determining how long it takes an upstream overcurrent device, such as a circuit Continue reading
If you ask five different people what an arc flash label should look like, you will likely receive five different answers. Although there are no hard and fast rules regarding the label format, there are some minimal requirements found in NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, and NFPA 70, National Electrical Code (NEC).
American National Standards Institute’s Z535 Series, known as “Series of Standards for Safety Signs and Tags.” is referenced as additional guidance by NFPA 70E for the labels. However, it is interesting that according to a survey conducted at ArcFlashForum.com, a large percentage Continue reading
National Electrical Code 110.9 Interrupting Ratings states that:
Equipment intended to interrupt current at fault levels shall have an interrupting rating at nominal circuit voltage at least equal to the current that is available at the line terminals of the equipment.
To comply with this requirement, a short circuit studies is typically performed to determine the available fault current for comparison to the protective devices interrupting rating. The results of a short circuit study are also a critical component for other studies such as an arc flash study. Requesting the available short-circuit data from the electric utility company should be one of the first tasks in performing the study. This information is very important because it defines the magnitude of current that could flow from the utility and is used as a starting point for arc flash calculations.
In addition to requesting this data for normal operating conditions, for an arc flash study the request should also include minimum short-circuit current conditions, if available. The minimum condition could be for a utility transformer or transmission line out of service or similar scenario. The minimum value can then be used to determine if the lower current could result in a protective device operating more slowly, which may increase the total incident energy during an arc flash.
Having been in charge of the Short Circuit Studies group for a very large electric utility company in a past life, the accuracy of the Continue reading
Published: June 2017
By Jim Phillips
Based on Jim’s article originally published in the
May 2017 Issue of Electrical Contractor Magazine.
It is hard to imagine that three years have passed since I wrote the 2015 NFPA 70E update article for Electrical Contractor Magazine ECMag.com. My latest article about the changes for the 2018 Edition was just published in last month’s May issue and is also printed here.
Once again there are many significant changes such as a major reorganization of Article 120, the introduction of many new definitions, an even greater emphasis on the Risk Assessment, moving the hierarchy of risk control methods to mandatory language and the deletion of the informational note containing the 40 cal/cm2 reference. So get a jump on bringing your electrical safety and arc flash training programs in line with the soon to be released 2018 Edition of NFPA 70E.
Around 2,500 years ago, the Greek philosopher Heraclitus is credited with the saying, “The only thing that is constant is change.” Who knew this ancient proverb would apply to NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace? The 2018 edition is right around the corner, and once again, change is a constant theme. From both minor and major revisions to new additions and major reorganizations, this 11th edition contains many changes.
This article does not contain every change, and some language is paraphrased due to space limitations. Since the final document has not yet been formally approved, additional changes are possible before publication. Therefore, refer to the final approved version once it is published.
Published: May 2017
Part 2 of 2 Part Series
There is an endless list of reasons for keeping your skills and knowledge up-to-date in the electrical industry. These days many electrical industry-licensing boards require a contractor to attend a minimum number of hours of training each year, often referred to as continuing education. However, the best reason is simply to stay current with the latest technology in the electrical industry.
One of the biggest attractions to any program is the word “FREE.” It will draw attention to anything, and there are a lot of FREE resources out there. The following are some examples of FREE electrical industry training options and resources.
Webinars: Free webinars, and the invitations to them, are everywhere. Although some webinars may be a bit commercial, a growing number are jam-packed with the latest information about industry trends, products, methods and ideas.