Almost half of the pages in the 2018 edition of NFPA 70E are devoted to 17 informative annexes. Even though technically the annexes are not part of the mandatory text, there is an incredible amount of additional information, examples and guidance found in the “second half” of NFPA 70E.
IEEE 1584 – It’s a Small World
The world’s electrical systems do not discriminate when it comes to electrical safety. Electric shock, electrocution and arc flash hazards can occur anywhere on the planet that has electricity. An interesting side note is that according to an International Energy Agency Report, around 1.2 Billion people do not have electricity. Hard to imagine as I type this on my laptop, with good lighting and the heat pump working away.
IEEE 1584 – IEEE Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations has been gaining global traction every day since it was first published in 2002. Although the IEEE 1584 standard has its roots in the United States, it has gained widespread international use as the most common method for Continue reading
New Exception 130.5(H) Exception No. 2 – Arc Flash Label Information May Not Be Required.
It is amazing how the requirements for arc flash labels have evolved with each new edition of NFPA 70E. Known as Arc Flash Warning Labels by the National Electrical Code and Equipment Labels according to NFPA 70E 130.5(H), most people simply refer to them as arc flash labels.
What first began as a simple requirement to warn people of the arc flash hazard, has morphed into a list of required information found in NFPA 70E 130.5(H). As an example the evolution of label requirements was the information to aid in selecting Personal Protective Equipment and Arc Rated Clothing. In the past, the requirements began with Hazard Risk Category Tables, then it became using the Hazard Risk Category Tables OR the calculated incident energy. Today the Hazard Risk Category Table is now the PPE Category Table and there is an array of options listed in 130.5(H). Another evolution was with the term originally known as Flash Protection Boundary. It was later changed to Arc Flash Protection Boundary and finally to Arc Flash Boundary. It is interesting to look at labels today and see what term is being used. You still see some of the earlier terms but regardless of terminology, the Arc Flash Boundary remains as the distance (approach limit) from an arc source where the incident energy is 1.2 calories/centimeter2 (cal/cm2). This is boundary is for the case when an arc flash hazard exists.
Fast forward to the 2018 Edition of NFPA 70E and yet another change to the labeling requirements has been added. 130.5(H) Exception No. 2 now permits eliminating the detailed information from the arc flash label!
No Information on the Label??!! What? Huh? Are you kidding me?
The state of the electrical equipment considering the manufacturers’ instructions, manufacturers’ recommendations, and applicable industry codes, standards and recommended practices.
Another term that is cited in NFPA 70E is “Properly Maintained” —these two words often will have people scratching their heads. And often, developing a legal disclaimer. The term is often a hot topic (pun intended) when discussing the arc flash hazard. Why? Because protective devices such as circuit breakers and relays that have not been properly maintained may not operate as quickly as they should. This means that during an arc flash, a longer duration will result in a greater total incident energy, creating an even greater arc flash hazard.
Calculating the prospective incident energy from an arc flash depends on many variables including the available short-circuit current and the time it takes an upstream protective device to clear the fault. IEEE 1584 – IEEE Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations provides equations that can be used for Continue reading
While I was conducting a 2 day electrical safety training program for a large electric utility, we took a substation tour for a demonstration. Upon entering the control house, there it was. A pole top rescue dummy just begging to be photographed and have a caption added.
Of course the first thing that came to mind (after I stopped laughing) was the seriousness of working around the hazards associated with electricity. One wrong move and anyone can be like the dummy.
Download your copy of the poster here. Don’t be a dummy! Continue reading
IEEE continues to expand its global presence with the opening of the European Technology Center in Vienna. The ribbon-cutting ceremony and official opening were just recently held on September 22. The center will provide support and services to the European technical community, focusing specifically on the needs of academia, government, and industry. In addition, the center will contribute to IEEE’s programs globally. The new office is located in the Austrian Standards Institute building.
“Establishing the European Technology Center marks an important step in furthering IEEE’s global, strategic activities within Europe and beyond,” says Karen Bartleson, 2017 IEEE president and CEO. “We see a strong foundation Continue reading
Jim Phillips, P.E.
One word. Deadly! If someone performs energized electrical work without being properly trained, the results can be catastrophic – and deadly! I have seen this play out regularly during accident investigations and legal cases. The victim was either not properly trained, or perhaps ignored a few steps from the electrical safety training program.
Many companies are very pro-active and make sure their employees are not only trained, but that they receive refresher training at least every three years based on NFPA 70E requirements. Many even use shorter intervals for refresher training or updates. Either way, refresher training is important for staying up to date with current standards and it can be a reminder to those that pick up bad habits along the way.
Electrical Safety Training – More than “Checking the Box”
However, a looming problem is that for some companies, training is either way down the list for various reasons or was not very thorough. I have seen many companies that simply want to “check the box” i.e. state they had training without much regard to what the content was and check it off their to do list. after all, what could possibly go wrong?
By Jim Phillips, P.E.
International Chairman IEC TC 78
As the International Chairman of IEC TC 78, a frequent question that I receive is “What is IEC TC 78?”
IEC is the acronym for the International Electrotechnical Commission based in Geneva, Switzerland. TC 78 standards for Technical Committee 78 which is the Live Working Committee. This committee is responsible for over 40 different International Live Working standards and documents and is represented by 42 countries via National Committees which includes 136 individuals known as Experts. Before I go any further, let’s back up a few steps first. Continue reading
By Jim Phillips
The 2017 National Electrical Code (NEC) contains several changes regarding arc flash:
- 110.16(B) Arc-Flash Hazard Warning of Service Equipment
- 240.87 Arc Energy Reduction (Circuit Breakers)
- 240.67 Arc Energy Reduction (Fuses)
The severity of an arc flash is largely dependent on two key variables which include the available short-circuit current and the duration of the arc flash. The short-circuit current is determined by performing a short circuit study involving extensive calculations. The duration is normally defined by determining how long it takes an upstream overcurrent device, such as a circuit Continue reading
If you ask five different people what an arc flash label should look like, you will likely receive five different answers. Although there are no hard and fast rules regarding the label format, there are some minimal requirements found in NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, and NFPA 70, National Electrical Code (NEC).
American National Standards Institute’s Z535 Series, known as “Series of Standards for Safety Signs and Tags.” is referenced as additional guidance by NFPA 70E for the labels. However, it is interesting that according to a survey conducted at ArcFlashForum.com, a large percentage Continue reading